What can the targets for destruction tell us about the rioters in Greece?

It’s been six months since ‘unprecedented‘ urban destruction in riots in Greece. I’ve documented specific attacks on property on the 12th and 13th of February, and 24th of March; even looked at non-destructive acts upon cultural property; and questioned the more-or-less-official account of material violence during the spring protests. Now I want to ask: what can the targets for destruction on the 12th of February 2012 tell us about the attackers?

This really is tl;dr. Basically, the primary targets were bankers, politicians and the police; and that suggests that (at least a lot of) the violence was a genuine expression of public anger, committed by anarchists and indignants. It does not bode well for the future.

One of the reasons that I waited six months was to see the report of the Athens Chamber of Commerce and Industry (ACCI/EBEA). The ACCI announced that there had been 170 serious attacks on property in Athens alone (1). I e-mailed and tweeted the ACCI in English and Greek. However, they never responded; and their assessment is nowhere to be found in the publications of the ACCI’s Centre for Study and Research (Κέντρο Μελετών και Έρευνας).

Yet I monitored the mainstream media and social media (2), and identified only 69 incidents of damage/destruction to buildings throughout Greece. (I was unable to count the number of police vehicles, cash machines, bus stops and benches that were wrecked; but no-one else counted them either.) More buildings may have been damaged (and some damage may have been impossible to document (3)); nonetheless, my sources even reported window-smashing, unsuccessful attempts to damage/destroy buildings, and tactical damage (to property that the attackers did not want to destroy). So, even if my record is incomplete, I believe it is representative:

  • 22 “general” commercial properties;
  • 21 banks;
  • 13 parliamentary/party/bureaucratic buildings;
  • 9 cultural venues;
  • at least 2 police stations;
  • 1 public service; and
  • 1 journalists’ office.

As I noted in my original documentation, ‘[t]he majority of targets were either banks, the politicians who support the banks, or the police who protect both the politicians and the banks’. (Save yourself time and enthusiasm by skipping to my unsatisfactory conclusions.)

Political explanations: right-wing narratives of left-wing cultural vandalism

Then leader of the conservative New Democracy party, now prime minister of Greece, Antonis Samaras neatly categorised the koukoulofori/koukouloforoi (people who cover their faces) as ‘bastards‘. Samaras said that ‘[t]hey targeted [the] historic buildings of Athens, deliberately’; similarly, the head of cultural policy for New Democracy, Thanassis Davakis, claimed that ‘[c]riminals targeted‘ Athens’ ‘neoclassical monuments’.

However, only nine of the sixty-nine seriously-harmed buildings were historic, and only eight were set on fire deliberately. (One of the nine was the cafe next to the cinemas, Kosta Boda, which caught fire accidentally.) Four of the eight were banks. I would be very intrigued to hear explanations of the arson of the other historic buildings: 66 Ermou; 41 Panepistimiou (the Nikoloudi Building); 6-8 Stadiou; and 19-21 Stadiou (containing the Apollon and Attikon cinemas); but those four buildings are in no way representative of the targets of the rioters.

In addition, the Numistmatic Museum and the Greek Resistance Memorial were (inexcusably but) lightly damaged.

Nevertheless, even if the historic banks are assumed to have been targets for their historic status, rather than their banking function; and even if the lightly-damaged museum and memorial are counted; and even if the accidentally-burned building is treated as having been deliberately-targeted; still, more parliamentary/party/bureaucratic buildings were attacked. So, the politicians themselves were more genuine targets of rioters’ anger than the nations’ monuments.

More generally, the police deduced an “‘organized plan’ to destroy Athens“; shopkeepers and residents, too, perceived an ‘organised plan of destruction, “analogous with that of December 2008” [οργανωμένο σχέδιο καταστροφής, “ανάλογο με εκείνο του Δεκέμβρη του 2008”]’. And that seems plausible; but who organised the plan(s) is a different question.

Political explanations: left-wing narratives of right-wing para-state provocation

Contrary to the right-wing dismissal of the destruction as the act of a rabble of criminals and bastards, but mirroring the police’s suspicion of organised violence, (quite-)far-left Syriza leader Alexis Tsipras alleged that ‘undisturbed parastate elements burned Athens [[α]νενόχλητοι παρακρατικοί έκαψαν την Αθήνα]’. (Hat tip, Zero Hedge (@zerohedge), where I first saw a report of the allegation.)

Left-wing newspaper Rizospastis (Radical) argued that the authorities attacked the non-violent mass protest, but allowed agents provocateurs ‘[to] set fire to various buildings [έβαλαν φωτιά σε διάφορα κτίρια]’; then Greek and international politicians and media used the ‘acts of agents provocateurs [τη δράση των προβοκατόρων]’ to ‘”bur[y]” the popular movements/grassroots movements [“Εθαψαν” τις λαϊκές κινητοποιήσεις]’.

Rizospastis published data that, it claimed, showed a ‘well-organised… plan of state repression and provocation [καλά οργανωμένο ήταν το σχέδιο κρατικής καταστολής και προβοκάτσιας]’. It presented a five-point argument (4):

1. Koukouloforoi (“mask-wearers”) synchronised actions within each city

Not necessarily. Synchronisation of action is evidence of a plan of destruction or provocation (and everyone from Rizospastis to Kathimerini agrees that the looters were ‘methodical [μεθοδικοί]’); but it is not evidence of who planned the destruction and provocation. The actions being coordinated or organised does not preclude the possibility of the actors being anarchists or communists. (By definition, anarchism involves autonomous cooperation, and communism involves collective organisation.)

2. Koukouloforoi had special equipment (and skills)

Not necessarily. Both left-wing groups like the Sect of Revolutionaries and the Conspiracy of Cells of Fire/Conspiracy of Fire Nuclei, and right-wing groups like Golden Dawn (Chrysi Avgi), have access to arms. If they have access to guns, and bomb-making knowledge and material, presumably they also have access to industrial tools.

3. Koukouloforoi had special weaponry (and skills)

Not necessarily. Both common criminals and political groups have access to weaponry and other equipment.

4. Koukouloforoi extorted money under threat of arson and murder

Not necessarily. Some anarchists (discussing an accidental killing) simply deny the identity to others who kill deliberately: ‘Anarchists are not murderers.’ ‘No anarchists would ever purposefully endanger other people’s lives.’ But at least some members of the Sect of Revolutionaries and the Conspiracy of Fire Nuclei identify as anarchists, and kill deliberately. Nonetheless, the extortionate arsonists were not anarchists; they were koukouloforoi.

Even conservative newspaper Kathimerini (the Daily) distinguished between anarchists and koukouloforoi. It reported that koukouloforoi ‘impersonate[d] anarchists to “get pocket money” [υποδύονται τους αναρχικούς προκειμένου να “βγάλουν χαρτζιλίκι”]’. ‘Armed with stones, planks [of wood] and Molotov cocktails, and with the police absent [οπλισμένο[ι] με πέτρες, καδρόνια και μολότοφ και με την αστυνομία απούσα]’, the koukouloforoi burned the (ground-floor) foyer of the Asty, then entered and ‘demanded money not to burn the [basement] cinema [ζήτησαν χρήματα για να μην κάψουν το σινεμά]’ (and thus not to burn the audience alive). (Similar things happened to at least three other businesses in that area alone.)

Kathimerini stated that ‘koukouloforoi carry out systematic looting during the episodes [κουκουλοφόροι κάνουν συστηματικά πλιάτσικο κατά τη διάρκεια επεισοδίων]’. Anti-authoritarian “K” acknowledged that ‘[a]narchists often “expropriate” foods from the supermarket and distribute them to people who have trouble surviving this season [Αναρχικοί πολλές φορές “απαλλοτριώνουν” σούπερ μάρκετ και μοιράζουν τρόφιμα στον κόσμο, που αυτή την εποχή έχει πρόβλημα επιβίωσης]’; but (perhaps unsurprisingly) he implied that others had looted ‘mobile phones and electrical appliances from shops that have been destroyed [τα κινητά και οι ηλεκτρικές συσκευές από μαγαζιά που έχουν καταστραφεί]’.

5. Koukouloforoi synchronised actions between cities

Once more, not necessarily. Synchronisation of action is absolutely evidence of a well-organised plan of attack; but it is not evidence of who planned the attack.

iEfimerida identified the arsonists as ‘activists of the extreme left [ακτιβιστές της άκρας αριστεράς]’. And one of the problems with left-wingers’ blaming of the right-wing para-state for destruction is other left-wingers’ claiming of the destruction as a just and necessary act.

Political explanations: left-wing narratives of left-wing moral violence

The (very-)far-left Revolutionary Workers’ Party complained about the moderate-to-quite-far left’s habitual “curses on ‘provocateurs’ and ‘koukouloforoi’ [κατάρες κατά των ‘προβοκατόρων’ και των ‘κουκουλοφόρων’]”.

The Antiwar Internationalist Movement judged that,

The only force that “prompted koukouloforoi, immigrants, children and youths” to burn a part of the [city] centre, to loot, is the desertification that capitalist barbarism leaves behind it; is the poverty, the isolation and the fear.

[Η μόνη δύναμη που «παρακίνησε κουκουλοφόρους, μετανάστες, παιδιά και νεολαίους», να κάψουν ένα μέρος του κέντρου, να κάνουν πλιάτσικο, είναι η ερημοποίηση που αφήνει πίσω της η καπιταλιστική βαρβαρότητα, είναι η φτώχια, η απομόνωση και ο φόβος.]

Communist revolutionary avanti_maestro agreed with a comrade who “said: ‘they are right to burn the banks’ buildings. That is how it ought to be when they burn our future and the future of the following generations’ [είπε: ‘Σωστά καπνίζουν ακόμη τα κτίρια των τραπεζών. Έτσι πρέπει όταν μας καίνε το μέλλον μας και το μέλλον των επόμενων γενεών’]”.

Indeed, avanti_maestro complained that “today we find ourselves in the position of apologising for the ‘historic buildings’ of Athens, instead of the political spokespeople of capital apologising for the crime against workers and future generations [σήμερα βρισκόμαστε σε θέση απολογίας για τα ‘ιστορικά κτίρια’ της Αθήνας, αντί να απολογούνται οι πολιτικοί εκπρόσωποι του κεφαλαίου για το έγκλημα απέναντι στους εργαζόμενους και τις επόμενες γενιές]”; that the majority of the left “uncovers provocateurs and hides itself behind burned walls [ανακαλύπτει προβοκάτορες και κρύβεται πίσω από καμμένα ντουβάρια]”.

Anarchist Dimos E. relayed how,

A companion aptly pointed out to me that the excessive number of buildings burnt to the ground is the result of displacement of the target of the population from Parliament onto alternative symbols of Greek capitalism and power (mostly financial): the numerous burned banks, department stores and chain stores are the censored metonymy of [substitute for] the burning parliament in the collective imagination.

[Μια συντρόφισσα εύστοχα μου επισήμανε ότι ο υπερβολικός αυτός αριθμός πυρπολημένων κτιρίων είναι το αποτέλεσμα της μετατόπισης του στόχου του λαού από τη Βουλή σε άλλα εναλλακτικά σύμβολα του ελληνικού καπιταλισμού και της εξουσίας (κατά βάση χρηματικής): Οι πάμπολλες καμένες τράπεζες, μεγάλα καταστήματα-αλυσίδες είναι η κρατικά λογοκριμένη μετωνυμία της φλεγόμενης Βουλής στο συλλογικό φαντασιακό.]

Recalling the 2008 Dekemvriana (Events of December), Neapoli shopkeeper Paraskevi Tranta remembered that ‘it had struck me how organised the whole story was. In front went the black bloc like an army, and behind all of the others followed for looting [με είχε εντυπωσιάσει το πόσο οργανωμένα έγινε όλη η ιστορία. Μπροστά πήγαιναν οι μαυροφορεμένοι σαν στρατός και από πίσω όσοι ακολουθούσαν για πλιάτσικο]’.

Anarchists’ targets are clear.

'Judges, Politicians, Cops, Academics, Contractors, Journalists, Bosses.'  Graffiti, Bank of Greece, 5th October 2009.

‘Judges, Politicians, Cops, Academics, Contractors, Journalists, Bosses.’ Graffiti, Bank of Greece, 5th October 2009.

And their methods are not secret.

'Βενζίνη και φωτιά σε κάθε τράπεζα.' Put petrol in and set fire to every bank. Oli Scarff, Getty Images' image cropped from Athenswire, 12th March 2012.

‘Βενζίνη και φωτιά σε κάθε τράπεζα.’ Put petrol in and set fire to every bank. Oli Scarff, Getty Images’ image cropped from Athenswire, 12th March 2012.

Evidence of anarchists’ acceptance of, or desire for, violence and destruction

Notably, to the left of the “set fire to every bank” graffito, an anarchist has demanded, ‘all the bankers in the deepest ditch, freedom for Giannis Dimitrakis [όλοι οι τραπεζίτες στο πιο βαθύ χαντάκι, λευτεριά στον Γιάννη Δημητράκη]’.

Dimitrakis was an imprisoned bank-robbing anarchist. To show solidarity with him, other anarchists burned down the Commercial Bank on Varnalis Street, Athens, on 25th March 2008; firebombed the Greek Embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on 20th April 2010; graffitied and firebombed the Greek Embassy in Prague, Czech Republic, on 22nd-23rd April 2010; committed arson (using gas canisters) against an Evropi News Agency van and a branch of the National Telecommunications Organisation (OTE), Thessaloniki on 25th-26th April 2010, and a branch of Eurobank, Thessaloniki, on 27th April 2010; firebombed the Commercial Bank in Chania, Crete, on 27th April 2010; and firebombed PASOK and New Democracy offices on Charilaou Trikoupi Street, Thessaloniki, on 30th November 2010.

Unsatisfactory conclusions

Right-wing explanations bear almost no relation to the evidence. Para-state-blaming left-wing explanations bear equally little relation to the evidence. And violence-glorifying left-wing explanations cannot justify attacks on anti-Nazi memorials, museums and other cultural heritage sites.

Do a constant, small group (or mix of groups) commit the violence/destruction, regardless of circumstances? Or does it genuinely show public anger, frustration, exasperation?

About 500 anarchists, armed with petrol bombs and iron bars, had occupied the Law School of Athens and declared ‘to free ourselves of debt, let’s destroy the economy [Για να απελευθερωθούμε από το χρέος, ας καταστρέψουμε την οικονομία]’; so there is definitely organised left-wing violence.

Yet the scale of the violence varies, which suggests at least some relationship with the scale of public anger.

Reporting for France 24, citizen (photo)journalist @ypopto_mousi observed that,

As usual, anarchist[s] from the extreme left attacked storefronts and public buildings. Of course there were hooligans and looters. But this time, a lot of ordinary protesters helped to deface banks and businesses – for example a Starbucks café – because for both old and young, they are symbolic of a common enemy, as they are a part of the current economy.

The ‘2,000 black-hooded anarchists carrying clubs and petrol bombs‘ were ‘applauded’ by demonstrators, and ‘several hundred’ demonstrators joined the Black Bloc.

Furthermore, regardless of the involvement of anarchists or indignants, even the Minister of Citizen Protection, Christos Papoutsis (who resigned in the middle of the chaos) suspected shadowy forces:

Do you think that 40 fires can have been accidents? [Or do] you think that they were caused by organised para-state actors?

[Εσείς αντιλαμβάνεστε ότι 40 πυρκαγιές μπορεί να ήταν τυχαίες; Νομίζετε ότι προκλήθηκαν από το οργανωμένο παρακράτος όπως λέγεται;]

Anarchists, Communists and exasperated moderates targeted banks, corporations, politicians and the police; and they proved competent in destroying strong, secure bank buildings. So, the “incompetence” displayed in the non-destruction of the Numismatic Museum and (especially) the Resistance Memorial may indicate that the thugs were para-state elements who worked to shame and delegitimise the protests (and other riots).

Yet that easy apportioning of blame may indeed be too easy; it may be too reassuring to apportion “justifiable” violence to the indignants and unjustifiable violence to the para-state. A true reckoning of responsibility for the destruction may yet be out-of-reach. Still, with the situation in Greece getting worse rather than better, evidence that the destruction was a genuine expression of public anger does not bode well.

Footnotes

1:

45 businesses (clothes shops, shoe shops, mobile phone shops, kitchenware shops, household goods shops, jewellers, supermarkets, book shops, etc.) suffered complete destruction by fire. 17 banks, 4 book shops, 5 department stores and shopping centres, and 70 clothing-and-footwear stores, as well as 29 businesses of various types, also suffered damage (Athens Chamber of Commerce and Industry, 13th February 2012).

[45 επιχειρήσεις (ένδυσης, υπόδησης, κινητής τηλεφωνίας, εστίασης, οικιακών ειδών, κοσμημάτων, σούπερ μάρκετ, βιβλίων κ.λπ.) υπέστησαν ολοσχερή καταστροφή λόγω πυρκαγιάς. Ζημιές υπέστησαν, επίσης, 17 τράπεζες, 4 βιβλιοπωλεία, 5 πολυκαταστήματα και εμπορικά κέντρα και 70 καταστήματα ένδυσης – υπόδησης, καθώς και 29 επιχειρήσεις διαφόρων μορφών (το Εμπορικό και Βιομηχανικό Επιμελητήριο Αθηνών (ΕΒΕΑ), 13η Φεβρουαρίου 2012).]

2: I searched Twitter’s complete timelines for,

  • 12fgr καίγεται/καίγονται
  • 12fgr έκαψε/έκαψαν
  • 12fgr βλάβη/ζημιά
  • 12fgr έβλαψε/έβλαψαν/ζημίωσε/ζημίωσαν
  • 12fgr καταστροφή/κατεστραμμένος/κατεστραμμένοι/κατεστραμμένη/κατεστραμμένες/κατεστραμμένο/κατεστραμμένα
  • 12fgr κατέστρεψε/κατέστρεψαν/καταστράφηκε/καταστράφηκαν
  • 12fgr φωτιά
  • 12fgr φωτιές
  • [anything on] Αγρίνιο
  • Athens, burned
  • Athens, burning; however, it was flooded with uninformative exclamations that ‘Athens’/’Athens, Greece’ was ‘burning’
  • Athens, damage
  • Athens, damaged
  • Athens, destroyed
  • Athens, destruction
  • Athens, fire; however, it was flooded with uninformative exclamations that ‘Athens’/’Athens, Greece’ was ‘on fire’
  • Athens, fires
  • Greece, burned
  • not Greece, burning [see: Athens, burning]
  • Greece, damage
  • Greece, damaged
  • Greece, destroyed
  • Greece, destruction
  • not Greece, fire [see: Athens, fire]
  • Greece, fires
  • Corfu/Kerkyra, burned
  • Corfu/Kerkyra, burning
  • Corfu/Kerkyra, damage
  • Corfu/Kerkyra, damaged
  • Corfu/Kerkyra, destroyed
  • Corfu/Kerkyra, destruction
  • Corfu/Kerkyra, fire
  • Corfu/Kerkyra, fires
  • [anything on] Herakleion/Irakleio/Ηράκλειο
  • [anything on] Patra/Πάτρα/Patras/Πάτρας
  • Thessaloniki, burned
  • Thessaloniki, burning
  • Thessaloniki, damage
  • Thessaloniki, damaged
  • Thessaloniki, destroyed
  • Thessaloniki, destruction
  • Thessaloniki, fire
  • Thessaloniki, fires
  • [anything on] Trikala/Τρίκαλα
  • Volos, burned
  • Volos, burning
  • Volos, damage
  • Volos, damaged
  • Volos, destroyed
  • Volos, destruction
  • Volos, fire
  • Volos, fires

And I searched Google News for:

  • Άστυ, Αττικόν, Απόλλων
  • Agrinio/Αγρίνιο
  • Athens/Αθήνα
  • Corfu/Κέρκυρα
  • Herakleion/Irakleio/Ιράκλειο
  • Νομισματικό Μουσείο
  • Greece, destroyed
  • Greece, fire
  • Patras/Πάτρας
  • Thessaloniki/Θεσσαλονίκη
  • Trikala/Τρίκαλα
  • Volos/Βόλος

3: Violence against foreigners and/or journalists; and risky business

It was difficult for journalists/citizens to document the events as they happened (and thus to produce evidence of the perpetrators and their methods).

(Mashing-up two of his tweets) the BBC’s Paul Mason (@paulmasonnews) noted that ‘nationalist blokes’ ‘attacked [his BBC team] for being “German” (!) – all is calm now, minus a microphone.’ Fortunately, ‘ordinary youth calmed attackers down; only mic damaged.’ ‘This is why very few media go in crowds.’ ‘W[oul]d help if we were not [the] only [people] here.’

As another BBC news team’s cameraman, Tony Smith (@TonyNewsCamera), noted, ‘[i]t’s lucky there are numerous balconies around #syntagma… or it would be [a] dangerous place to report‘. Paul Mason ‘did not see a single other news crew on streets amid 10ks of ppl and 3 hrs on street’.

(That’s why you see a light show at demonstrations – demonstrators use green laser pens to prevent journalists seeing, photographing and videoing.)

Mason’s reporting was worth reading in and of itself:

Citizens, too, are warned not to video:

There is also (seemingly) incidental injury: one photojournalist was ‘hit by a petrol bomb’.

4:

Well-organised provocation

Over the last few days, Rizospastis published a series of data that shows how well-organised the plan of state repression and provocation that unfolded last Sunday was. More specifically:

1. The koukouloforoi acted with absolute synchronisation. Almost simultaneously, at around 10.30 in the evening, they started fires in tens of buildings in the centre of Athens, so to make their extinction significantly more difficult. At the time the buildings were burning, teams of koukouloforoi had also set up road blocks and prevented fire engines extinguishing the fires, while attacking the firefighters at the time they were attempting to put the fires out.

2. The koukouloforoi had at their disposal special equipment for the breaking of armoured doors and of protective structures, particularly of resistant/durable ones. There are testimonies that speak of coordinated enterprise[s] in which the koukouloforoi first opened the shutters and armoured doors with special equipment, and then threw materials inside to spread the fire. In fact a part of this equipment is capable of – as happened on several occasions – melting solid metal within a very short time, which is a component (special pins) of the armour of the protective shutters, the violation [breaching] of which is not possible with conventional means. So, there must also be the appropriate equipment and, simultaneously, the specialised knowledge of how it will be used.

3. The weaponry that the koukouloforoi had at their disposal was special; it cannot be bought so easily by just anyone. They had at their disposal murderous weapons. For example, they fired flares with a special device that, if someone receives them in any part of their body, they may even lose their life. The use of this weaponry, apart from the fact that it is not easily found in the trade/on the market and is also very expensive, it requires special training.

4. Shop owners and managers complained that, when teams of koukouloforoi arrived in front of their stores, they demanded money in order not to burn them. Then, they threatened the patrons that, if they did not go outside, they would burn them alive; and afterwards they set fire [to the buildings].

5. The barrage of fires [arson] and of destruction of buildings developed almost simultaneously in Athens, Thessaloniki, Volos, Trikala, Patras, Agrinio, Corfu, Heraklion.

[Καλά οργανωμένη προβοκάτσια

Τις προηγούμενες μέρες ο ΡΙΖΟΣΠΑΣΤΗΣ δημοσίευσε μια σειρά δεδομένα που δείχνουν πόσο καλά οργανωμένο ήταν το σχέδιο κρατικής καταστολής και προβοκάτσιας που εκτυλίχθηκε την περασμένη Κυριακή. Πιο συγκεκριμένα:

1. Οι κουκουλοφόροι έδρασαν με απόλυτο συγχρονισμό. Σχεδόν ταυτόχρονα, γύρω στις 10.30 το βράδυ, μπήκαν φωτιές σε δεκάδες κτίρια στο κέντρο της Αθήνας, έτσι που να δυσκολεύει σημαντικά το σβήσιμό τους. Την ώρα που φλέγονταν τα κτίρια, ομάδες κουκουλοφόρων είχαν στήσει ακόμα και οδοφράγματα και εμπόδιζαν πυροσβεστικά οχήματα να σβήσουν τις φωτιές, ενώ επιτέθηκαν και σε πυροσβέστες την ώρα που επιχειρούσαν κατάσβεση.

2. Οι κουκουλοφόροι είχαν στη διάθεσή τους ειδικό εξοπλισμό για τη διάρρηξη θωρακισμένων πορτών και προστατευτικών κατασκευών ιδιαίτερα ανθεκτικών. Υπάρχουν μαρτυρίες που κάνουν λόγο για συντονισμένη επιχείριση κατά την οποία οι κουκουλοφόροι πρώτα άνοιγαν με τον ειδικό εξοπλισμό τα ρολά και τις θωρακισμένες πόρτες και μετά έριχναν μέσα τα υλικά για να εξαπλωθεί η φωτιά. Μάλιστα ένα τμήμα αυτού του εξοπλισμού είναι ικανό – όπως κι έγινε σε αρκετές περιπτώσεις – να λιώσει μέσα σε πολύ σύντομο χρόνο συμπαγές μέταλλο, το οποίο αποτελεί εξάρτημα (ειδικοί πίροι) για τη θωράκιση των προστατευτικών ρολών και τη μη δυνατή παραβίασή τους με συμβατικά μέσα. Αρα, πρέπει και να υπάρχει ο κατάλληλος εξοπλισμός και ταυτόχρονα, η εξειδικευμένη γνώση για το πώς θα χρησιμοποιηθεί.

3. Ο οπλισμός που είχαν στη διάθεσή τους οι κουκουλοφόροι ήταν ειδικός, δεν μπορεί να τον προμηθευτεί έτσι απλά ο οποιοσδήποτε. Είχαν στη διάθεσή τους δολοφονικά όπλα. Για παράδειγμα, εκτοξεύτηκαν φωτοβολίδες με ειδική συσκευή που αν τις δεχτεί κάποιος σε οποιοδήποτε μέρος του σώματος μπορεί ακόμα και να χάσει τη ζωή του. Η χρησιμοποίηση αυτού του εξοπλισμού, πέρα από το ότι δεν βρίσκεται εύκολα στο εμπόριο και είναι και πανάκριβος, απαιτεί ιδιαίτερη εκπαίδευση.

4. Ιδιοκτήτες και υπεύθυνοι καταστημάτων κατήγγειλαν πως όταν ομάδες κουκουλοφόρων έφτασαν μπροστά στα καταστήματά τους απαίτησαν χρήματα προκειμένου να μην τα πυρπολήσουν. Στη συνέχεια απειλούσαν τους θαμώνες πως αν δεν βγουν έξω θα τους κάψουν ζωντανούς και μετά έβαζαν φωτιά.

5. Το μπαράζ των πυρκαγιών και των καταστροφών σε κτίρια, εξελίχθηκε σχεδόν ταυτόχρονα σε Αθήνα, Θεσσαλονίκη, Βόλο, Τρίκαλα, Πάτρα, Αγρίνιο, Κέρκυρα, Ηράκλειο.]

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