human rights worker and anti-imperialist fighter Maksym Butkevych has been captured by Russia’s invading forces

Maksym Butkevych, a pacifist Christian anarchist, human rights worker and journalist, who volunteered to join the Ukrainian Armed Forces to combat Russia’s war of aggression and genocide, has been captured by Russia’s invading forces and is being defamed with grotesque propaganda.

Maksym has been committed to human rights since childhood

As political activist Denys Pilash has observed, Maksym has been an activist since 1990, when he formed “a non-violent strike committee at his school during the ‘Revolution on Granite’ [un comité de grève non violent dans son école pendant la ‘révolution sur le granit’]”. During the strike, he appealed:

We all understand that this is only the beginning of the struggle. And that we will continue to fight. And that is why I want to call on all schools that have not yet joined us to support the student movement and the movement for the independence of Ukraine. And I want to say that we supported you, we support you and we will support you. Glory to Ukraine!

[Ми всі розуміємо, що це тільки початок боротьби. І що ми будемо боротися далі. І тому я хочу закликати всі школи, які ще не приєднались до нас, підтримати студентський рух, і рух за незалежність України. І я хочу сказати, що ми вас підтримували, підтримуємо, і будемо підтримувати. Слава Україні!]

Later, he was a formative figure in the militant/anarchist(ic) student union, Direct Action, and became a key figure in all sorts of rights activism.

For instance, in 2006, as confirmed by the European court of Human Rights, he was illegally detained for documenting anti-globalisation protests in Russia.

He was one of the organisers of the annual commemoration of Russian human rights lawyer Stanislav Markelov and environmentalist journalist Anastasia Baburova, who were murdered by neo-Nazis in Russia in 2009.

In 2010, he lamented Ukraine’s implementation of Uzbekistan’s malicious requests for the arrest of asylum-seekers who were fleeing political persecution by Uzbekistan’s law enforcement agencies. “We would really hate to see how Ukraine finds itself in the epicenter of a scandal as a country that violates its own legislation, norms of international law and basic human rights. [Нам бы очень не хотелось видеть, как Украина оказывается в эпицентре скандала как страна, нарушающая свое собственное законодательство, нормы международного права и элементарные права человека.]”

For a long time, he worked as a journalist at the same time and displayed his keen eye for the amusing amid the difficult, dangerous and tragic. When he reported from Maidan at dawn on the 19th of February 2014, while the “tents behind [the ‘Yolka’ Christmas tree were] burning, [the] ground floor of the Kyiv Conservatory [was] on fire, [and a] further fire arc surround[ed] protestors and [went] around the Independence Monument and all the way to the building of Trade Unions”, he observed: “Defenders of the first line of the barricades [were] throwing Molotov cocktails, stones from the pavement and sometimes even festive fireworks at police, with the latter making the picture even more surrealistic…. Another guy ask[ed] for help with pouring petrol into the bottles for Molotovs, then notice[d] a ‘Press’ sign on [Maksym’s] jacket and [went] away apologizing.”

At the same time, in February-March 2014, he and other activists occupied the building of the State Migration Service, “to prevent the destruction of documents that would testify to the politically motivated nature of previous asylum denials [не дать уничтожить документы, которые бы свидетельствовали о политически мотивированном характере предыдущих отказов в убежище]” by the pre-revolutionary state of claims by asylum-seekers from Russia, Belarus and other states of the former Soviet Union.

On 25th August 2015, he coordinated a protest near the Embassy of Russia in Kyiv, against Russia’s conviction and imprisonment on false charges of Crimean film director and freedom of expression activist Oleg Sentsov and Crimean volunteer archaeologist and anti-fascist activist Aleksandr Kolchenko (who was acquainted with volunteer archaeologist and right-wing historian Oleksiy Chyrniy, who had mental health problems and was entrapped into acting on a plan to destroy a monument to Lenin, then pressured into implicating his uninvolved acquaintances, by the KGB successor organisation FSB). Maksym supported Sentsov and Kolchenko consistently, from their detention on 10th May 2014 until their release through an exchange of prisoners on 7th September 2019.

And these are just a few examples. He’s always busy, always helping people. He’s part of a community that’s always helping people, as they’ve helped me when I’ve been in Ukraine. When I’ve been there, we’ve snatched a drink as he’s moved from one endeavour to another, or he’s deprived himself of some of the little sleep that he allows himself.

Maksym works tirelessly for human rights now

He is a co-founder of Hromadske Radio; a co-founder of the NGO No Borders for the human rights of refugees, asylum-seekers, internally-displaced persons and other migrants; the coordinator of the Resource Center for Assistance to Internally-Displaced Persons (which is a consortium that includes No Borders); a co-founder of the ZMINA Human Rights Centre; and a moderator of the human rights documentary film festival, Docudays UA.

In the course of his career, he has also been the coordinator of the implementation of monitoring of and rapid responses to human rights violations in Ukraine for the Public Health Alliance; an associate regional public information officer for the UN Agency for Refugees in Ukraine, Moldova and Belarus; a member of the community council under the Ministry of Internal Affairs; and a member of the board of the Ukrainian office of Amnesty International.

Belarusian Radio Svaboda (Радыё Свабода), the Belarusian Association of Journalists and Belsat TV observed that he had assisted with “the legalization of Belarusians in Ukraine who have fled the Lukashenka regime since 2020 [легалізацыяй ва Украіне беларусаў, якія ўцякалі ад рэжыму Лукашэнкі з 2020 года Крыніца]” and “was the first to report on the illegal actions of the SBU in relation to the Belarusian anarchist Aleksey Balyankov/Aleksey Bolenkov [ён першым паведаміў аб незаконных дзеяньнях СБУ ў дачыненьні да беларускага анархіста Аляксея Балянкова]” in 2021.

When Maksym attended court in solidarity with Balyankov/Bolenkov’s appeal for asylum in 2021, fascist National Resistance activists, who organise through the Volier Telegram channel and who had already shared his name and image there in 2020, attacked them and others, “explaining that they would now gladly commit acts of physical violence against [Maksym] for supporting LGBT activities and activists, [having] the wrong political views, and in general [engaging in] any human rights activity [объясняя, что сейчас с удовольствием совершат акты физического насилия в отношения меня за поддержку ЛГБТ активистов и активисток, неправильные политические взгляды и вообще всякую правозащитную деятельность]”.

Soon after, he appealed that, “taking into account the illegitimacy of the current Belarusian regime, systematic torture and mass repressions, we believe that it is necessary to suspend cooperation with the security forces of the Republic of Belarus [Учитывая нелегитимность действующего белорусского режима, системные пытки и массовые репрессии, мы считаем, что нужно приостановить сотрудничество с силовыми структурами Республики Беларусь]”.

The Kharkiv Human Rights Protection Group notes that he has highlighted “the plight… of many asylum seekers” – such as pacifists and anti-war activists from Russia – “facing deportation from Ukraine to Russia, Belarus or other countries where they [are] in danger“. If he were not a prisoner of war, he “would certainly… be speaking out on behalf of Karin Potyomkina, a Belarusian… in Ukraine who is in danger of extradition, although she was recently awarded for her work as a volunteer in clearing the rubble after Russia’s savage bombing of Bucha in Kyiv oblast”.

On the 10th of January 2022, Maksym and Belarusian refugees stood alongside Kazakh refugees in the snow outside the Embassy of Kazakhstan in Kyiv, (as he said) as “an act of solidarity with the people of Kazakhstan [акція солідарності з народом Казахстану]”, to press for “compliance with human rights and freedoms [дотримання прав і свобод людини]”, (as a Belarusian refugee said) “to support the people of Kazakhstan in their quest for freedom [поддержать народ Казахстана в стремлении к свободе]”. He felt that it was particularly important, because “our state is [still] dangerous for refugees and for activists from Kazakhstan [Наше государство опасно для беженцев, и для активистов из Казахстана]” who may be abducted and forcibly deported, by the State Security Service, back to the countries from which they have fled.

As a friend and colleague at ZMINA Human Rights Centre, Irina Virtosu, says, “Maksym seeks to reduce the amount of suffering [Максим стремится уменьшить количество страданий]”. As another at the Tbilisi Shelter City, Sasha Delemenchuk, says, “I don’t remember the day, the moment, the minute I met Max. I just remember that he always saved everyone. [Я не помню дня, момента, минуты, в которую я познакомилась с Максом. Я просто помню, что он всегда всех спасал.]”

It is no wonder that repressive regimes, that seek to maximise the suffering of others, have him in their sights.

Maksym felt the need to fight for human rights

Yet, as Maksym had told Hromadske Radio before his capture: “The decision to join the UAF and defend Ukraine was made a long time ago. Even before the [intensification] of the war. It has actually been maturing since 2014. I knew I would go to war. There were no other options in my mind and heart. [Рішення піти до ЗСУ та захищати Україну було давно. Ще до початку війни. Воно визрівало фактично з 2014 року. Я знав, що піду на війну. Не було в голові та серці інших варіантів.]”

He volunteered on the 24th of February, was called up on the 4th of March and trained. Then, on the 16th of June, he was dispatched to the eastern front.

The war was not a nationalist project. As he told the ZMINA Human Rights Centre in 2017,

I personally do not need any Ukraine. Independent at any cost, independent just to be independent…. I need Ukraine as a country of free people, as a project, as a society – and our movement towards an ideal, where everyone on this earth can live without fear. Regardless of who they are and what thoughts they express. If this does not happen, if it is an authoritarian, chauvinistic, xenophobic country, then I do not need it.

[мне, лично, не нужна любая Украина. Независимая любой ценой, независимая просто, чтобы была независимая…. Мне нужна Украина как страна свободных людей, как проект, как общество, и наше движение к идеалу, где на этой земле все смогут жить без страха. Независимо от того, кем они являются и какие мысли выражают. Если этого не будет, если это авторитарная, шовинистическая, ксенофобная страна – то мне она не нужна.]

Maksym and his comrades were captured as they sought to free occupied territories from Russia’s war of aggression and genocide

He and his comrades in a platoon of the 210th Berlingo battalion lost communication with command. They lost access to food and water. Then, as Maksym’s father, Oleksandr, explained to Hromadske Radio, they were captured through Russian soldiers’ exploitation of a Ukrainian prisoner.

They were surrounded [in the village of Myrna Dolyna, near the occupied villages of Zolote and Hirske and the occupied town of Lysychansk in Luhansk oblast]. They were under mortar fire all night. One of the scouts reported that the ring of encirclement was rapidly narrowing and that they had to leave their positions and come out. He gave them the coordinates of the meeting point. They came out. When they reached the rendezvous point, the scout informed them that they were at gunpoint, [they] would be killed if they did not lay down their arms and he himself was a prisoner. That is, he was forced to bring them into the sights of the enemy. So they were led into a trap and they decided to lay down their arms.

[Їх оточили. Всю ніч обстрілювали з мінометів. Один із розвідників повідомив, що кільце оточення стрімко звужується і вони мають залишати позиції й виходити. Надав їм координати точки зустрічі. Вони вийшли. Коли досягли точки зустрічі, розвідник повідомив, що вони під прицілами й будуть знищені, якщо не складуть зброю, а він сам перебуває в полоні. Тобто його змусили завести їх під приціли ворога. Так їх завели в пастку й вони вирішили скласти зброю.]

Maksym and his comrades are prisoners of war, who are being held incommunicado by the Russian Federation

Maksym’s mother, Yevheniya, told Babel that official efforts for his release were being managed by the Joint Centre for the Search and Release of Prisoners, which is supervised by the State Security Service and the Main Intelligence Directorate. His family have not heard from him or about him since his capture, except through the Russian propaganda that presented the captured platoon, and do not know where he is or how he is.

Yevheniya told Hromadske Radio:

In Russia, they already know everything about him, [but] they know it in a completely distorted way. Maksym is a human rights defender who has never worked for any government. And they say that he is a ‘Nazi’, ‘a Nazi platoon commander’ and so on.

[У Росії про нього уже все знають і знають абсолютно викривлено. Максим — правозахисник, який ніколи не працював на жодну владу. А вони кажуть, що він ‘нацик’, ‘командир нацистського взводу’ і так далі.]

As Ukrainian human rights activist Yevheniia Polshchykova told openDemocracy, “it’s so Orwellian“.

Oleksandr explained to Hromadske Radio (in Ukrainian, as I have reconstructed from very slightly varying fragments that have been transcribed by Hromadske Radio and Detector Media and checked against an alternative phrasing that has been transcribed and translated into English by the Institute of Mass Information):

starting from the first day in the information space of the Russian Federation, propaganda fakes and distortions about Maksym began to be ‘dispersed’.

The danger is that they started calling him a Nazi, that his human rights activities are only a ‘cover’, ‘a legend under which a fascist, the commander of a punitive platoon was hiding’. Incitement [propaganda] is done in order to create a foundation, the so-called ‘public opinion’, which will then give grounds to pull him out of the ranks of prisoners of war and incriminate him with a separate article of crime – terrorism, an attack on the state system of Belarus or Kazakhstan…. Propagandists spread fakes about Maksym with the sole purpose of setting up a show trial.

[починаючи з першого дня в інформаційному просторі РФ почали ‘розганяти’ пропагандистські фейки та викривлення щодо Максима.

Небезпека в тому, що його почали називати нацистом, що його правозахисна діяльність — лише ‘прикриття’, ‘легенда, під якою ховався фашист, командир карального взводу’. Нагнітання [пропаганди] робиться для того, щоб створити підґрунтя, так звану ‘громадську думку’, яка дасть потім підстави висмикнути його з середовища військовополонених і інкримінувати якусь окрему статтю злочину – тероризм, замах на державний устрій Білорусі чи Казахстану…. Пропагандисти поширюють фейки про Максима з єдиною метою – влаштувати показове шоу-судилище.]

No-one has heard from Maksym since the 19th of June

The last time that his friends and colleagues at the No Borders Project (Проєкт Без Кордонів) were in contact with him was on the 19th of June.

The last time that his family were in contact with him was on the 18th. “He wrote that ‘everything [was] fine.’ [Він написав ‘усе гаразд‘.]”

He didn’t even halt his civilian efforts to help people and society when he was on the front line. The last time I was in contact with him was on the 16th, when he checked that I’d heard the news about the seizure of suspect antiquities from Valeriy Horbatov.

The time before that was on the 1st-2nd, when I told him that I’d been unable to watch the match between Ukraine and Scotland (wearing the T-shirt from the campaign to free Crimean hostages Oleg Sentsov and Aleksandr Kolchenko, which he had given to me on my first visit to Ukraine in 2016), because Italy had played Argentina at the same time, and we laughed about the fact that Italy scored fewer goals against Argentina than Scotland did against a country that Italians had clarified (with awe) as “the [same] Ukraine that’s in a war with Russia?”

Maksym is being targeted and exploited in Russian imperialist propaganda

Possibly since the 23rd, seemingly since the 24th (primarily on the 24th-25th) of June, Russian agents have been producing and spreading propaganda about Maksym.

The targeted, social media-based propaganda campaign (and its echo by useful idiots), which spans at least Arabic, English, French, Italian, Polish, Swedish and Spanish as well as Russian-language material, was expanded or intensified to exploit the immediate rejection by his friends and colleagues of the broader, state media-based propaganda campaign about his unit, which was launched on RIA Novosti.

Russian-language posts, which exploited a since-deleted, English-language post by one of his friends in order to torment his family, friends and colleagues, were posted on vKontakte and Twitter immediately after his friend’s expression of horror and outrage, by a Russia-born, Ukraine-raised, Netherlands and/or Russia-resident, far-right-wing party-assisting figure, who identifies himself as a “political analyst”, yet who is identified by others as a “propagandist”, Vladimir Kornilov.

Kornilov’s screenshots became common features of others’ posts. At least one thread, which incorporated them later, had started before, which reaffirms, as the immediate exploitation demonstrates, that the campaign was organised before and not prompted by the expression of horror and outrage.

The mainstay of the campaign may have been conducted immediately. Across vKontakte and Twitter, for instance, I found around 99 posts on the 24th of June, 96 on the 25th, 11 on the 26th, 1 on the 27th, 3 on the 28th, 0 on the 29th and 0 on the 30th; 2 on the 1st of July, 0 on the 2nd, 11 on the 3rd, 2 on the 4th, 0 on the 5th, 0 on the 6th, 4 on the 7th, 0 on the 8th, 0 on the 9th, 0 on the 10th, 0 on the 11th, 0 on the 12th, 0 on the 13th, 0 on the 14th, 0 on the 15th and 1 on the 16th… However, the continuation of the campaign may have increasingly shifted towards lessvisible activity, such as replies to family, friends, colleagues and other concerned citizens, where the propagandists do not repeat his name. Indeed, the claim that Maksym had been presented to a court was a reply.

Russia’s lies are absurd

As observed by anti-capitalists and anti-fascists, “the situation is disgustingly absurd [Ситуация отвратительно абсурдная]”, “beyond absurd”.

The propaganda presents Maksym as a Ukrainian nationalist in general and a Russophobe in particular, despite his knowledge of Russian history, knowledge of Russian culture and fluency in Russian, to the point that he can and does switch from Ukrainian (and indeed from English) in one sentence to Russian in the next without a pause and he can and does happily converse in Russian when it is convenient for others.

Particularly in Russian, it characterises him as a fascist, Nazi or “Ukro[nazi]”, though those terms have been debased in Russian, where they are used to mean anti-regime, despite his anti-fascist and anti-Nazi activism.

It presents him as a propagandist, despite his efforts to counter propaganda.

It plays on a coincidence of surnames to infer guilt by association with an unrelated target of Russian propaganda, Bohdan Butkevych, who was the victim of a “montage fake [монтажный фейк]” in 2014.

It misrepresents the successful pro-democracy revolution in Ukraine in 2014 and the repressed pro-democracy uprisings in Belarus in 2020-2021 and Kazakhstan in 2022 as coups d’etat or coup attempts and thereby excuses misrepresenting Maksym as a coupist or as a George Soros-funded, Anglo-American agent of colour revolution (because, by Russia’s logic, democracy is a bad thing) and civil war, despite his campaigning for an end to the violence.

As anyone who knows him at all will attest, all of these lies are so bizarre that they would be funny if they were not so grotesque.

Reaffirming the fact that it is a carefully-orchestrated campaign (that revels in its own contradictions), some of it does not deny that he really is a human rights worker rather than a propagandist. Yet it quotes his own statement that he had paused his work for human rights to fight for human rights, in order to assert that he is not a human rights worker anymore, even though he was only forced to become a combatant by Russia’s intensification of its war to the point of genocide.

Indeed, many pieces of propaganda plagiarised his biography from a report by the ZMINA Human Rights Centre, which explained “how human rights defenders [had] become defenders of the country [Як правозахисники стають захисниками країни]”.

Some of the propaganda also drops its mask and damns him for his work to advance LGBT+ rights.

Some of it, too, intimates what is already grimly expected, as one organisation (which is at least allegedly a voluntary organisation of civil society) in the occupied territories states that he will be having “intimate conversations” (which it puts in speech marks) with the secret services of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan.

[As recalled in reporting of fears about Maksym’s treatment by his captors, someone with diametrically-opposed politics to Maksym, right-wing paramilitary sympathiser, professional designer and volunteer medic Yuliia Paievska had discussed three months of “torture and relentless beatings” by her captors.]

By the 28th of June 2022, one apparent Russian propaganda account, newages, claimed that “Maxim Butkevich [had] already appeared before the court [Максим Буткевич уже предстал перед судом]”.

We can only hope, for the sake of Russians, Belarusians and Kazakhs, as well as Ukrainians and Maksym himself, that he is released soon, free to return to the human rights work that is so close to his heart.

propagandists, sock puppets, bastards, trolls and imbeciles (or victims of fakes and distortions)

It can be difficult to distinguish between imbeciles, trolls, bastards, sock puppets and propagandists. Nonetheless, with regard to socio-economic position, propaganda has been shared by people or characters who claim to be soldiers; veterans; pensioners; academics; a member of presidential staff; an anti-“treason” activist; an animal rights activist; a printer; an electric scooter dealer; a tour operator; an engineer; a doctor; and a theatre director.

And authentic ordinary citizens and communities are consuming and spreading this bullshit. Indeed, some apparently authentic Russian nationalists (as well as amoral propagandists and trolls) are instructing others to “make noise”, in order to make it politically unacceptable for Maksym to be released through an exchange of prisoners. They want him to be executed.

The ordinary citizens appear to include a white supremacist Russian nationalist grave robber and coin dealer in occupied Crimea; an Orthodox nationalist coin and icon collector in Russia; an Orthodox nationalist artefact hunter in Belarus; and a coin collector in Kyrgyzstan.

They also appear to include an Orthodox monarchist military historian in Russia; an archivist in Russia; and an archaeologist in Russia, who had immediately celebrated the impending “liquidation” of Ukraine on 24th February 2022, had been insulted for that by another archaeologist in Russia and had cursed at the other archaeologist in turn.

With regard to ideology, propaganda has been shared by people or characters who claim to be Russian ultranationalists; Soviet/Russian imperialists; Russian Orthodox conservatives, moderates and socialists; Slavic nationalists, from everywhere from Russia to Belarus to Czechia by way of Slovakia; socialists and communists in Russia and Kyrgyzstan; Chechen Muslims and Dagestani Muslims, who are aligned with Putinist warlord Ramzan Kadyrov; Russian female militarists, who intensify the toxic masculinity of the war effort; Armenians who are at least strategically, if not ideologically, aligned with Russia; and anti-imperialists in Argentina, Chile, Cote d’Ivoire, France, Italy, Mexico, Nigeria, Peru, Spain, Venezuela, Ukraine (and the Ukrainian diaspora in Israel) and the United Kingdom, who evidently only have a problem with the imperialisms of countries in Western Europe and North America.

an archive of propagandists, sock puppets, bastards, trolls and imbeciles

I may try to maintain an increasingly-comprehensive archive of this material. However, this sample is sufficient to demonstrate the existence and nature of the propaganda campaign.

Indeed, there appears to be (at least some) genuine confusion of Maksym Butkevych with Bohdan Butkevych by Russian nationalists, which has driven (at least some of) the nationalist community to correct the rest (rather than to consciously create guilt by mistaken association), though conscious propagandists will have exploited the incompetence of some of their true believers in order to perpetuate guilt by mistaken association as well.

I have tried to record all of the times and dates in Central European Summer Time. However, they are not really significant; they are primarily a way of archiving the propaganda without republishing it. All of the links to “social”/”professional” media have rel=”nofollow” tags. The links to Twitter and vKontakte do not.

Vasilisa, Twitter, 1/16, 13:00, 24/06/22; 2/16, 17:36, 24/06/22; 3/16, 17:36, 24/06/22; 4/16, 17:36, 24/06/22; 5/16, 17:36, 24/06/22; 6/16, 18:26, 24/06/22; 7/16, 18:26, 14/06/22; 8/16, 18:26, 24/06/22; 9/16, 18:26, 24/06/22; 10/16, 18:31, 24/06/22; 11/16, 18:34, 24/06/22; 12/16, 18:34, 24/06/22; 13/16, 18:34, 24/06/22; 14/16, 18:34, 24/06/22; 15/16, 20:28, 24/06/22; 16/16, 01:47, 25/06/22

Vladimir Kornilov, vKontakte, 15:33, 24/06/22

Vladimir Kornilov, Twitter, 15:34, 24/06/22

Victor Kouprich, Twitter, 15:41, 24/06/22

Министерство Правды, vKontakte, 15:39, 24/06/22

Elmira Gukasova, vKontakte, 15:45, 24/06/22

Tatyana Chebakova, vKontakte, 15:58, 24/06/22

Zа наших!, vKontakte, 16:54, 24/06/22

Борис Рожин [also known as Colonelcassad], Telegram, 17:04, 24/06/22 [Boris Rozhin’s posts were popular sources for reposted text, though few included a link to their source. Some deliberately or accidentally indicated the original source by reposting text so completely that it included Rozhin’s Telegram username, Colonelcassad.]

Борис Рожин, Боевой листок, [before] 17:13, 24/06/22

Mikhail Orlov, vKontakte, 17:13, 24/06/22

Боевой листок, vKontakte, 17:18, 24/06/22

Комитет ’25 января’, vKontakte, 17:20, 24/06/22

Geoestrategia y Política, Twitter, 17:29, 24/06/22

Dmitry Orlov, vKontakte, 17:30, 24/06/22

Jacques Frère, Twitter, 17:37, 24/06/22

НАРОДНЫЕ НОВОСТИ, vKontakte, 17:39, 24/06/22

Западенець — Орден Степана Бандери ‘Тухле Сало’, vKontakte, 17:39, 24/06/22

! Z – КАЛИНИНГРАД V НОВОРОССИЯ – Z !, vKontakte, 17:47, 24/06/22

ЕНОТЫ Новороссия Z, vKontakte, 17:49, 24/06/22

Первый Русский, Tsargrad TV, 17:57, 24/06/22

Na_ZdОroVie1812🇷🇺, Twitter, 18:02, 24/06/22

ВОЕННЫЙ ОБОЗРЕВАТЕЛЬ, vKontakte, 18:14, 24/06/22

Русская весна, 18:16, 24/06/22

ZVOнарь, vKontakte, 18:21, 24/06/22

Vladimir Alexeevich, vKontakte, 18:22, 24/06/22

С места событий, YouTube, 18:28, 24th June 2022

Amor y Rabia News, Twitter 18:31, 24/06/22

Anna Istomina, vKontakte, 18:52, 24/06/22

Актуально! Важно!, vKontakte, 18:56, 24/06/22

Ruslan Aktushev, vKontakte, 18:56, 24/06/22

Valery Kudinov, vKontakte, 18:57, 24/06/22

Операция Z: Военкоры Русской Весны [RVvoenkor], Telegram, 18:58, 24/06/22 [This is clearly an influential source, but it was found through its consumers, so it is not clear how influential it is or how influential other less-visible sources are.]

Armen Astvatsatryan, vKontakte, 19:02, 24/06/22

Sergey Vinogradov, vKontakte, 19:04, 24/06/22

Dmitry Anfisov, vKontakte, 19:03, 24/06/22

Dmitry Fedotov, vKontakte, 19:05, 24/06/22

Ilya Savelyev, vKontakte, 19:05, 24/06/22

Roman Dukhnov, vKontakte, 19:06, 24/06/22

Bandileros, vKontakte, 19:07, 24/06/22

Alexander Razdolsky, vKontakte, 19:09, 24/06/22

Svetlana Belentsova, vKontakte, 19:09, 24/06/22

ЮГО-ВОСТОК! ЕНОТЫ!, vKontakte, 19:10, 24/06/22

Украина Донбасс Сирия Военкор…, vKontakte, 19:10, 24/06/22

marina alikantes, Twitter, 19:17, 24/06/22

Станичник /станица Луганская/, vKontakte, 19:18, 24/06/22

Подоляка, vKontakte, 19:20, 24/06/22

Corry🇮🇹🇷🇺🇵🇸 Z brothers fighting for freedom, Twitter, 1/2, 19:22, 24/06/22, 2/2, 19:23, 24/06/22

РУССКАЯ ВЕСНА (, vKontakte, 19:27, 24/06/22

Антимайдан. СЛАВЯНСКИЙ ТРЕУГОЛЬНИК. КИЕВ, vKontakte, 19:27, 24/06/22

Viktor Kozlov, vKontakte, 19:28, 24/06/22

Газета ‘СПЕЦНАЗ РОССИИ’ и журнал ‘РАЗВЕДЧИКЪ’, vKontakte, 19:30, 24/06/22

Sergey Seryubin, vKontakte, 19:30, 24/06/22

Наталья С, Twitter, 1/3, 19:31, 24/06/22, 2/3, 19:31, 24/06/22, 3/3, 19:31, 24/06/22

Русский Мир, vKontakte, 19:31, 24/06/22

ИнфоСоюз, vKontakte, 19:32, 24/06/22

Лента новостей Киева | Z, vKontakte, 19:32, 24/06/22

Россия, Украина, Белоруссия, Новороссия, Сирия, vKontake, 19:33, 24/06/22

Экстремизм-терроризм-безопасность. Война, vKontakte, 19:33, 24/06/22

Sergey Zavadsky, vKontakte, 19:33, 24/06/22

РОССИЯ vs НАТО, vKontakte, 19:37, 24th June 2022

Информационный полк! Справедливость, vKontakte, 19:37, 24/06/22

БРАТИШКИ ИЗ СПЕЦНАЗА ТЭ, vKontakte, 19:39, 24/06/22

Новороссия: новости мира и политики …, vKontakte, 19:42, 24/06/22

Irina Repyova, vKontakte, 19:43, 24/06/22

Алина Ларина, CT News,19:43, 24/06/22

Россия [Z+142], vKontakte, 19:45, 24/06/22

dymkag, Twitter, 19:48, 24/06/22

Tatyana Dolotova, vKontakte, 19:48, 24/06/22

Дмитрий Плотников, Правда.Ру, 19:49, 24/06/22

Vladimir Zinenko, vKontakte, 19:49, 24/06/22

NewsFrol, vKontakte, 19:49, 24/06/22

ЦентрАзия, [site], 19:55, 24/06/22

РНР|Ровенская Народная Республика|Малороссiя, vKontakte, 19:59, 24/06/22

Andrey Ivanov, vKontakte, 20:06, 24/06/22

Anastasia Voloshkevich, vKontakte, 20:10, 24/06/22

Миротворцы НОВОРОССИИ, vKontakte, 20:10, 24/06/22

☭ иℤVестия ☭, vKontakte, 20:13, 24/06/22

Tlik Gennadyevich [in reply to Антимайдан – Военно – политическое обозрение], vKontakte, 20:17, 24/06/22

Natalya Nikolaeva, vKontakte, 20:22, 24/06/22

Guillaume 🏴󠁧󠁢󠁷󠁬󠁳󠁿, Twitter, 1/4, 20:26, 24/06/22, 2/4, 20:26, 24/06/22, 3/4, 20:26, 24/06/22, without link-only 4/4

Sr. Sánchez 🛠💢, Twitter, 1/3, 20:29, 24/06/22, 2/3, 20:30, 24/06/22, without link-only 3/3

Русский Днепропетровск, vKontakte, 20:35, 24/06/22

Igor Sarapkin, vKontakte, 20:37, 24/06/22

Сводки с фронтов Новороссии и не только, vKontakte, 20:39, 24/06/22

Frol Tarnovsky, NewsFrol, 20:48, 24/06/22

Армия и оружие, vKontakte, 20:51, 24/06/22

Alexey Komov, vKontakte, 20:57, 24/06/22

Tatiana Ponomarenko, vKontakte, 21:06, 24/06/22

Asmorani, Twitter, 21:17, 24/06/22

Milan Pechart, vKontakte, 21:19, 24/06/22, [site], 21:27, 24/06/22

Горячие новости, vKontakte, 21:31, 24/06/22

Ианед, vKontakte, 21:34, 24/06/22

Уфимские заметки, vKontakte, 21:48, 24/06/22

РУССКИЕ, ВПЕРЕД !!! НОВОРОССИИ БЫТЬ !!!, vKontakte, 21:49, 24/06/22

Anticastas, Twitter, 1/4, 21:52, 24/06/22, 2/4, 21:52, 24/06/22, 3/4, 21:53, 24/06/22, 4/4, 21:53, 24/06/22

Lyudmila Z, Twitter, 1/3, 22:00, 24/06/22, 2/3, 22:00, 24/06/22, 3/3, 22:00, 24/06/22

Открой Глаза, vKontakte, 22:12, 24/06/22

Chavista 0101, Twitter, 1/4, 22:26, 24/06/22, 2/4, 22:26, 24/06/22, 3/4, 22:26, 24/06/22, 4/4, 22:26, 24/06/22

Donetsk Live // //, vKontakte, 22:40, 24/06/22

Alefa Mirnyi, vKontakte, 22:42, 24/06/22

ГБР Новороссия, vKontakte, 22:58, 24/06/22

Вышивата, vKontakte, 23:01, 24/06/22

Daniel501, Flashback [online forum], 23:03, 24/06/22


★☭ Dani, Twitter, 23:07, 24/06/22

Dima Sokolov, vKontakte, 23:10, 24/06/22

Paul Kikos, Twitter, 23:11, 24/06/22

Запорожье – НАШ!, vKontakte, 23:15, 24/06/22

Papon Papa_sha, vKontakte, 23:18, 24/06/22

Aisha Ummarova, vKontakte, 23:45, 24/06/22

Desde las Trincheras 🇵🇪🤝🇷🇺, Twitter, 1/4, 23:47, 24/06/22, 2/4, 23:49, 24/06/22, 3/4, 23:50, 24/06/22, 4/4, 23:52, 24/06/22

#Донбасс и мы, vKontakte, 23:54, 24/06/22

Возрождение Российской Державы, vKontakte, 23:59, 24/06/22

vkpress, [site], ??:??, 24/06/22

Вечный ZOV, RUTUBE, ??:??, 24/06/22

АНТИФАШИСТЫ (ЛНР и ДНР против фашизма)., vKontakte, 00:11, 25/06/22

Война на Украине. Новости ДНР, ЛНР. Антимайдан, vKontakte, 00:21, 25/06/22

Виктория Абрамова, SM News, 00:38, 25/06/22

Сергей Вредников, Политнавигатор, 00:41, 25/06/22

Roma Ivo, vKontakte, 00:58, 25/06/22

Актуальные Новости на Руси – Славянское Братство, vKontakte, 01:51, 25/06/22

КРАСНАЯ ЗВЕЗДА, vKontakte, 01:55, 25/06/22

Новороссия – земля героев, vKontakte, 02:00, 25/06/22

Irina Melnikova, vKontakte, 02:07, 25/06/22

Alexey Bannikov, vKontakte, 02:12, 25/06/22

Seve Zubiri, Twitter, 1/3, 02:22, 25/06/22, 2/3, 02:22, 25/06/22, 3/3, 02:22, 25/06/22

Vyacheslav Efimov, vKontakte, 02:38, 25/06/22

Мировой Порядок, vKontakte, 02:56, 25/06/22

Vesyoly Yozh, vKontakte, 03:25, 25/06/22

Smaïn Bédrouni, vKontakte, 03:33, 25/06/22

НОРД21ВЕК, vKontakte, 03:46, 25/06/22

Svetlana Verkina, vKontakte, 04:34, 25/06/22

Andrey Pozhidaev, vKontakte, 04:41, 25/06/22

‘НАШЕСТВИЯ’, vKontakte, 05:30, 25/06/22

Elena Luchuk, vKontakte, 05:40, 25/06/22

Наша Новороссия, vKontakte, 05:46, 24/06/22

Донбасс-сердце России!, vKontakte, 06:00, 25/06/22

Gueber Barzelai ✡, Twitter, 1/2, 06:03, 25/06/22, 2/2, 06:03, 25/06/22

Mikhail Khramkov, vKontakte, 06:15, 25/06/22

Andrey Boroda, vKontakte, 06:26, 25/06/22

Украины больше нет!, vKontakte, 06:29, 25/06/22

Руслан Ниязов, PolitCentr.Ru, [site], 06:30, 25/06/22

АНТИФАШИСТ, [site], [after] 06:30, 25/06/22

СП Штаб Z “ДОЛГ” Россия НДКР Призрак 21+, vKontakte, 06:32, 25/06/22

Красноярск Сегодня, vKontakte, 06:35, 25/06/22

раз, vKontakte, 06:53, 25/06/22

Витебск PRO, vKontakte, 07:30, 25/06/22

Новости Z, vKontakte, 07:33, 25/06/22

George A. Hamalian, Twitter, 1/2, 08:01, 25/06/22, 2/2, 08:01, 25/06/22

Mikhail Tomilin, vKontakte, 08:04, 25/06/22

Valentina Khramova, vKontakte, 08:07, 25/06/22

‘Лига памяти’ Za Дебальцево, vKontakte, 08:09, 25/06/22

Народно-Патриотическое движение ‘СПЕКТР МИНСК’, vKontakte, 08:17, 25/06/22

АМ, vKontakte, 08:33, 25/06/22

voenkorr, Kont, 08:34, 25/06/22

Zapiski iz Podpolya, vKontakte, 08:45, 25/06/22

Tony, Twitter, 08:47, 25/06/22

ГБР Мариуполь, vKontakte, 09:00, 25/06/22

Агония Европы — прощай, Евросоюз, vKontakte, 09:14, 25/06/22

НОВОРУСМИР – Новый Русский Мир, vKontakte, 09:14, 25/06/22

Наша страна Россия!, vKontakte, 09:16, 25/06/22

Vladimir Petrov, vKontakte, 09:25, 25/06/22

Vyacheslav Parvadov, vKontakte, 09:29, 25/06/22, vKontakte, 09:30, 25/06/22

ИННА СЕМИНА,, 09:34, 25/06/22

★ Провинциальные новости ★, vKontakte, 09:53, 25/06/22

Alexander Semenov, vKontakte, 10:14, 25/06/22

Газета | Наш ДОНБАСС, vKontakte, 10:17, 25/06/22

Сводки от ополчения Новороссии, vKontakte, 10:20, 25/06/22

Сирия.Новороссия.Россия !!!, vKontakte, 10:20, 25/06/22

Dmitry Ivanov, vKontakte, 10:30, 25/06/22

Актуально на СЕГОДНЯ, vKontakte, 10:35, 25/06/22

MPSH.RU, [site], 11:02, 25/06/22

Газета ‘Завтра’, vKontakte, 11:31, 25/06/22

Stan Radar, 11:55, 25/06/22

Grigory Fedosov, vKontakte, 12:11, 25/06/22

Oleg Pershin, vKontakte, 12:13, 25/06/22

Irina Repyova, vKontakte, 12:14, 25/06/22

Белый… Синий… Красный…, vKontakte, 12:18, 25/06/22

#НОВОСТИ, vKontakte, 12:18, 25/06/22

@Kliment Levi, Twitter, 12:33, 25/06/22

Координационный Центр Помощи Новороссии. КЦПН., vKontakte, 12:54, 25/06/22

ndimukoma, Twitter, 1/2, 13:08, 25/06/22, 2/2, 13:08, 25/06/22

Edgar, Twitter, 1/4, 13:20, 25/06/22, 2/4, 13:21, 25/06/22, 3/4, 13:23, 25/06/22, 4/4, 13:23, 25/06/22


Военно-политический обзор, vKontakte, 13:35, 25/06/22

Lyudmila Sokolova, vKontakte, 14:01, 25/06/22

Viktor Kuznetsov, vKontakte, 14:14, 25/06/22

Alexander Alexeev, vKontakte, 14:34, 25/06/22

Что Там у ХоХлов? ♂ (ЧТУХ), vKontakte, 15:00, 25/06/22

ЧТУХ ®(резерв), vKontakte, 15:00, 25/06/22

Ermek Niazov, vKontakte, 15:05, 25/06/22

InfoFront-Online, vKontakte, 15:17, 25/06/22

Viktor Ilyin, vKontakte, 15:17, 25/06/22

Телеканал “Сталинград”, vKontakte, 15:30, 25/06/22

Wishmaster© Vendetta, 🚩– стяг, Twitter, 15:41, 25/06/22

Информационная война против политики США, vKontakte, 15:47, 25/06/22

ВЕЛИКАЯ РОССИЯ (Мировая политика), vKontakte, 15:53, 25/06/22

Marina Chislova, vKontakte, 15:58, 25/06/22

Sarah Ilych, Twitter, 1/4, 16:30, 25/06/22, 2/4, 16:30, 25/06/22, 3/4, 16:31, 25/06/22, 4/4, 16:31, 25/06/22

Анти НАТО Анти ИГИЛ Anti ISIS, vKontakte, 16:52, 25/06/22

Вечный ZOV, vKontakte, 17:00, 25/06/22

Дениско ⓩ ⓥ, Twitter, 17:07, 25/06/22

Украина, ДНР, ЛНР – стихи и анекдоты, политика, vKontakte, 17:10, 25/06/22

Viktor Kadievsky, vKontakte, 17:24, 25/06/22

Клуб актуальных политических проблем, vKontakte, 17:41, 25/06/22

СУРОВЫЕ КОТЫ ДОНБАССА, vKontakte, 18:00, 25/06/22

Dr. Daark, Twitter, 18:12, 25/06/22

Anna Delis, vKontakte, 18:37, 25/06/22

Ernest Karabanov, vKontakte, 18:41, 25/06/22

Экспресс ‘Питер-Горловка’, vKontakte, 19:00, 25/06/22

La puerta izquierda #OTAN NO, Twitter, 20:21, 25/06/22

Юрий Подоляка – свежие и актуальные новости, vKontakte, 20:52, 25/06/22

Lilia Markina, vKontakte, 21:17, 25/06/22

Borbhas Misteryo, Twitter, 21:55, 25/06/22

Украины больше нет. Кто следующий?, vKontakte, 22:20, 25/06/22

Гелярий Гражевич, Twitter, 23:11, 25/06/22

Rowan Van Dijk, Twitter, 23:16, 25/06/22, 2/2, 23:20, 25/06/22

Крымский Волк, Twitter, 23:37, 25/06/22

Пантелеймон,, ??:??, 25/06/22

Yandex, etc.

★☭ Dani, Twitter, 01:48, 26/06/22

Zа Единую Русь | Za Путина, vKontakte, 08:00, 26/06/22

Tatyana Novakovskaya, vKontakte, 10:57, 26/06/22

Доска объявлений Крым.Севастополь., vKontakte, 11:44, 26/06/22

Алексей Иванов, Вселенная – Территория Свободной Стаи, 12:04, 26/06/22

Roman Nevsky, vKontakte, 12:13, 26/06/22

АНТИрусофоб, vKontakte, 12:25, 26/06/22

ForPost, Севастопольский новостной портал, [site], 12:36, 26/06/22

Days February, Twitter, 1/2, 13:49, 26/06/22, 2/2, 13:50, 26/06/22

БИТВА за ДОНБАСС, vKontakte, 17:10, 26/06/22

Евгений Решетнев, Павел Прокопенко, Вести.Ру, 18:08, 26/06/22

Mila Donbass, vKontakte, 23:30, 26/06/22

Таврический курьер, [blog], ??:??, 26/06/22

Skeptik.KG, [site], ??:??, 26/06/22

События Дня|Новости Донбасса|Истории, vKontakte, 19:52, 27/06/22

newages, Twitter, 05:16, 28/06/22, vKontakte, 09:09, 28/06/22

Pan Petroff, vKontakte, 19:21, 28/06/22

Ivan Krutko, vKontakte, 19:15, 01/07/22

НОД Норильск, vKontakte, 19:15, 01/07/22

tartaruga verde, Twitter, 1/4, 14:24, 03/07/22, 2/4, 14:24, 03/07/22, 3/4, 14:24, 03/07/22, 4/4, 14:24, 03/07/22

Martin Dassiyé, Twitter, 1/3, 15:44, 03/07/22, 2/3, 15:45, 03/07/22, 3/3, 15:46, 03/07/22

UNCOVER infos™ 😏🎙️, Twitter, 1/4, 15:50, 03/07/22, 2/4, 15:50, 03/07/22, 3/4, 15:50, 03/07/22, 4/4, 15:50, 03/07/22

Ilya Derevyanko, vKontakte, 06:46, 04/07/22

Bil Boul, Twitter, 11:17, 04/07/22

Marcelo Cortes 🇷🇺 🅉, Twitter, 1/4, 00:18, 07/07/22, 2/4, 00:19, 07/07/22, 3/4, 00:20, 07/07/22, 4/4, 00:21, 07/07/22

Pavlina Pavlina, vKontakte, 01:01, 16/07/22

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