trafficking of forgeries by forced migrants and forced migrants as false provenances for forgeries

While I was piecing together English-language evidence of looting and trafficking of antiquities by internally-displaced persons and internationally-displaced persons, I looked at Turkish-language evidence, too. For a variety of reasons, it shed most light on trafficking of forgeries by forced migrants and supposed purchases from forced migrants as false provenances for forgeries.

From the very beginning, it must be borne in mind that only around one per cent of all suspected cultural property criminals in Turkey do not have Turkish nationality (cf. Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Adli Sicil ve İstatistik Genel Müdürlüğü, 2019: 46 – table 2-13). Irresponsible discussion is dangerous discussion. Still, there is cultural property crime by non-citizens; it is bound up with conflict and crisis; and it is being discussed irresponsibly, through ignorance and malice. None of that can be addressed by silence.

Searches

I compiled relevant cases among the first 100 results of searches for “mülteci”+“tarihi eser” (“refugee”+“historic artefact”); “göçmen”+“tarihi eser” (“migrant”+“historic artefact”); “Irak uyruklu”+“tarihi eser” (“with Iraq[i] nationality”+“historic artefact”), between 1993 and 2001, between 2002 and 2010 and between 2011 and 2019; and “Suriye uyruklu”+“tarihi eser” (“with Syria[n] nationality”+“historic artefact”) between 1993 and 2001, between 2002 and 2010 and between 2011 and 2019.

The evidence base is affected by a wide range of primarily internal and primarily international political factors, such as the loss of sources due to the low level of media freedom and the archiving practices of surviving media, the official treatment and public discussion of Syrian (and other non-European) asylum-seekers as “guests” rather than “refugees” (see Abdelaaty, 2019) and the political (in)significance of suspects’ nationality. So, it cannot be interpreted as a direct representation of activity.

After all (discounting additional reports of individual cases), there was apparently only one relevant case among the first 100 results of searches for mentions of historic artefacts and people with Syrian nationality between 1993 and 2001 and one more between 2002 and 2010, then 44 between 2011 and 2019. This may not be a complete collection of relevant cases, but it should still be a representative sample.

The evidence base is also affected by peculiarities that are more difficult to explain, such as the use of photographs of forensic evidence as illustrations of other cases (e.g. Olay, 2015; Samsun, 2014) and even the republication of reports as news years after the events (e.g. Başak, 2016; Yetmez, 2008), which is typically only identifiable in such reviews (unless a revealing date is left in the report) and then only when earlier publications are still available to discount later republications.

For instance, one preposterous story about an alleged antiquities trafficker with Syrian nationality was republished in 2016 (e.g. Başak, 2016). While it was seemingly never clarified whether that case actually involved complex forgery, simple fraud or police perjury, it occurred in 2008 (cf. Yetmez, 2008).

Findings

Bearing all of that in mind, with regard to refugees:

  • In 2009, five Iraqi and two Palestinian asylum-seekers (of whom, six were men and one was a woman) were intercepted with fourteen fragmentary antiquities as they tried to leave Turkey for Bulgaria (Arslan, 2009).
  • A forged Torah, which was supposedly 1,900 years old and advertised with an initial bargaining price of USD 30,000,000, was seized from four men with Turkish nationality in Adana, who had allegedly bought it from an antiquarian. Yet, it was supposedly suspected that ‘the historic Torah had been taken from Israel to occupied Palestine, smuggled from [t]here to Syria, [by] some people who got into the country [Turkey] among the Syrians who have taken refuge in Turkey [tarihi Tevrat’ın İsrail’den işgal altındaki Filistin’e götürüldüğü, buradan da Suriye’ye kaçırıldığı, Türkiye’ye sığınan Suriyeliler arasındaki bazı kişilerin de yurda soktuğu]’ (Milliyet, 2013).
  • In 2016, four cultural objects in one bag were recovered after they had been abandoned by ‘three [people] who were assumed to be refugees [mülteci olduğu tahmin edilen üç]’ on Altınova beach in the Ayvalık district of Balıkesir province (Sözcü, 2016b), which faces the nearby island of Lesvos in Greece.
  • In 2017, ‘two Syrian refugee brothers [İki Suriyeli mülteci kardeş]’ were detained for ‘seeking customers in order to sell fake money as cultural property [sahte paraları tarihi eser olarak satmak için müşteri aradıkları]’ (Milliyet, 2017).

With regard to people with Iraqi nationality, in 2001:

  • A forgery of the Crying Man by Picasso, which had supposedly been bought ‘from an Iraqi general… in the Gulf War [Körfez Savaşı’nda… Iraklı bir generalden]’ by was seized in an undercover operation against five men with Turkish nationality including a police officer and a paramilitary village guard, who had advertised it with an initial bargaining price of USD 1,200,000 and who confessed that they had bought it from someone with Iraqi nationality, who claimed to have bought it from an officer in the Iraqi army and smuggled it from Iraq to Turkey during the Gulf War (Hürriyet, 2001; cf. Ergül, n.d.).

In 2017:

  • A seemingly fake Bible was seized from a driver with Turkish nationality and two passengers with Iraqi nationality (Karamanca, 2017).

In 2018:

  • A seemingly fake bible was seized from two people with Syrian nationality, one person with Iraqi nationality and one person with Turkish nationality in a car (Bölükbaş, 2018).

With regard to people with Syrian nationality, in 2000:

  • A forgery of la Fermière by Picasso, which had supposedly ‘been stolen [çalındığını]’ from the palace of the Emir of Kuwait by ‘an Iraqi officer… during the Gulf War in 1991 [1991’deki Körfez Savaşı sırasında da Iraklı bir subay]’, was supposedly smuggled first from Kuwait to Iraq and later from Iraq to Syria, where it was allegedly bought by the network and smuggled from Syria to Turkey, where it was advertised with an initial bargaining price of USD 6,500,000; it was seized in an undercover operation against six suspects, four of whom had Turkish nationality and two of whom had Syrian nationality, in a case with at least one more suspect ‘with [unspecified] foreign nationality [yabancı uyruklu]’ (NTV-MSNBC, 2000; cf. Ergül, n.d.).

In 2008:

  • A truck driver with Syrian nationality was detained at customs while delivering a shipment of cultural objects that were alleged to have been ‘pillaged [yağmalanarak]’ from the abandoned palace of ousted dictator Saddam Hussein in Baghdad in 2003, ‘gathered [by] Peshmerga [peşmergelere toplattığı]’ for a ‘capitalist [sermayedar]’ from northern Iraq over the following years and intercepted in the process of being smuggled from Syria through Turkey and Israel to markets in Europe (Yetmez, 2008).

In 2013:

  • 821 cultural objects, at least some of which seemed to be fake antiquities, were seized in a raid on a person with Syrian nationality, ‘who wanted to sell coins and [other] objects of historical value, which they had brought from their country, in Nizip district [Nizip ilçesinde kendi ülkesinden getirdiği tarihi eser değerindeki sikke ve objeleri satmak isteyen]’ (Cihan Haber Ajansı, 2013a).
  • 14 cultural objects were seized in a raid on a house where allegedly ‘large quantities of historic artefacts that had been procured from Syria… had [been] hidden [Suriye’den temin ettiği çok miktarda tarihi eseri… sakladığı]’ and nine people were detained, four of whom had Syrian nationality (according to Mardin Security Directorate, cited by Cihan Haber Ajansı, 2013b).
  • Various cultural objects, which were judged to be ‘historic artefact[s] [tarihi eser]’, were seized from a woman with Syrian nationality when they were spotted at customs at Karkamış (Cihan Haber Ajansı, 2013c).

In 2014:

  • 1,407 coins and various other cultural objects were seized from two people with Syrian nationality and two people with Turkish nationality, who ‘tried to sell historic artefacts, which were judged to have been brought from Syria, to gendarmes in Şanlıurfa [Şanlıurfa’da Suriye’den getirildiği tahmin edilen tarihi eserleri jandarmaya satmaya çalışan]’ (Samsun, 2014).
  • ‘54 pieces of cultural property, which were determined to have been brought from Syria illegally [Suriye’den yasa dışı yollarla getirildiği belirlenen 54 parça tarihi eser]’ and at least some of which seemed to be authentic antiquities, were seized from four people with Syrian nationality (Anadolu Ajansı, 2014).

In 2015:

  • A range of seemingly fake antiquities – including five Bibles, ten silver coins, two gold coins and one ceramic statue – were seized in an undercover operation that targeted three people with Syrian nationality in Esenyurt, who ‘wanted to sell the historic artefacts, which were judged to have been stolen from museums in Syria, for 1,000,000 [American] dollars [Suriye’deki müzelerden çalındığı tahmin edilen tarihi eserleri 1 milyon dolar karşılığından satmak isterken]’ (Vural, 2015).
  • ‘242 works with the characteristics of historic artefacts that had been brought from Syria illegally [Suriye’den kaçak yollarla getirdiği saptanan 242 parça tarihi eser niteliğinde eşya]’, at least some of which seemed to be fake antiquities, were seized in a raid on a person with Syrian nationality (Olay, 2015).
  • A ‘large number of coins and sculptures that were judged to belong to the Roman period [Roma dönemine ait olduğu değerlendirilen çok sayıda sikke ve heykel]’ were seized from three people with Syrian nationality (Yeni Meram, 2015).
  • 620 cultural objects, at least some of which seemed to be fake antiquities, were seized in a raid on a person with Syrian nationality, as they were suspected to have been ‘brought illegally from Syria to Turkey… [and] marketed [Suriye’den kaçak yollarla Türkiye’ye getirilen… pazarlanacağı]’ in Şanlıurfa (Şulul, 2015).
  • Numerous ‘coins and [other] objects that had been brought from Syria illegally and bore the characteristics of historic artefacts [Suriye’den kaçak olarak getirilen tarihi eser niteliği taşıyan sikke ve objeler[i]]’, though at least some seemed to be fake antiquities, were seized from three people with Syrian nationality (Urfa’da Bugün, 2015).
  • Two people with Syrian nationality were intercepted with five pieces of a mosaic, which was believed to have been ‘smuggled from Syria [Suriye’den kaçırılan]’ (Ertuğrul, 2015).
  • 66 cultural objects were seized in a raid on two people with Syrian nationality in Gaziantep (Koçyiğit, 2015).
  • Seemingly fake antiquities, which were judged to be ‘2 Bibles, which were around 1,500 years old, and 80 coins [yaklaşık 1500 yıllık olduğu… 2 İncil ile 80 sikke]’ were seized in a raid on a person with Syrian nationality in Şanlıurfa (Sat 7 Türk Haber, 2015).
  • Three people with Syrian nationality were intercepted with ‘5,108 pieces of cultural property like coins, rings and household goods [sikke, yüzük, ev eşyası gibi 5 bin 108 parça tarihi eser]’ (Doğan Haber Ajansı, 2015), though many seemed to be fake antiquities.

In 2016:

  • Seemingly fake antiquities were seized from a person with Syrian nationality on a bus (İhlas Haber Ajansı, 2016a).
  • 573 cultural objects ‘that were judged to be antiquities [tarihi eser olduğu değerlendirilen]’ were seized from ‘13 people with Syrian nationality who tried to enter Turkey illegally [Türkiye’ye yasa dışı yollarla geçmeye çalışan Suriye uyruklu 13 kişi]’ (Sözcü, 2016a).
  • Three mosaics, which had allegedly ‘been stolen from museums in Syria [and] brought to Istanbul [Suriye’deki müzelerden çalınarak İstanbul’a getirilen]’ and were going ‘to be sold [satılacağı]’, were seized from four people with Syrian nationality (Doğan Haber Ajansı, 2016).
  • Two people with Syrian nationality were caught while trying to sell a ‘fake Torah that they claimed was a thousand years old [bin yıllık olduğunu iddia ettikleri sahte Tevrat]’ (Yıldırım, 2016), for which they asked 10,000,000 Turkish lira (or more than 3,000,000 euros, though obviously that price would have collapsed to almost nothing in any bargaining process). Such scams hint at one of the illicit market structures – sellers who target consumers who do not know what they are buying, yet who hope to exploit vulnerable sellers of authentic antiquities.
  • ‘40 necklaces that were judged to belong to the Roman period, 10 rings that were judged to belong to ancient ages and 319 gemstones of various sizes and colours [Roma dönemine ait olduğu değerlendirilen 40 adet kolye, eski çağlara ait olduğu değerlendirilen 10 adet yüzük ve çeşitli ebat ve renklerde değerli 319 adet taş]’ were seized from a passenger with Syrian nationality, who was then ‘delivered to the Provincial Migration Directorate to be deported [sınır dışı edilmek üzere İl Göç İdaresine teslim edildiği]’ (İhlas Haber Ajansı, 2016b).

In 2017:

  • 41 bronze coins, which ‘were determined to belong to the period of the Roman Empire and to bear the characteristics of historic artefacts [Roma İmparatorluğu dönemine ait olduğu ve tarihi eser niteliği taşıdığı belirlendi]’, were seized from a person with Syrian nationality in Şanlıurfa (Medya Urfa, 2017).
  • A person with Syrian nationality was intercepted with seemingly fake antiquities, though ‘the works were judged to have been stolen from museums during the civil war in Syria [Suriye’deki iç savaş sırasında müzelerden çalındığı değerlendirilen eserler]’ (Atam, 2017).
  • Six people, one of whom had Syrian nationality, were intercepted with a seemingly fake Christian manuscript that was believed to have been ‘stolen from a museum in Syria [and] brought from Manisa to the city [Bursa] to be sold [Suriye’deki bir müzeden çalındığı… satış için Manisa’dan kente getirildiği]’ (Diken, 2017) and that had an initial bargaining price of 1,500,000 Turkish lira (or nearly 400,000 euros).
  • A seemingly fake Bible was seized from a driver with Turkish nationality and two passengers with Iraqi nationality (Karamanca, 2017).
  • 17 seemingly fake tablets, which ‘were judged to have been brought to Turkey illegally… and to be historic artefacts [yasa dışı yollardan Türkiye’ye getirildiği… ve tarihi eser olduğu değerlendirilen]’, which were alleged ‘to have a market value of 500,000 [American] dollars [piyasa değerinin 500 bin dolar olduğunu]’ and were supposedly going ‘to be sold in return for 250,000 [American] dollars in the surroundings of Hüseyin Gazi Neighbourhood Pine Grove Park [Hüseyin Gazi Mahallesi Çamlık Parkı civarında 250 bin dolar karşılığında bir tarihi eserin satılacağı]’, were seized in a raid on two people with Syrian nationality (Öncü Şehir, 2017).
  • 62 seemingly fake coins, two seemingly fake Christian manuscripts and one seemingly fake statuette, which had reportedly been ‘sneaked from Syria into Turkey illegally [Suriye’den yasadışı yollarla Türkiye’ye sokulan]’ (Kilis Postası, 2017).
  • 90 seemingly fake coins, which were believed to be ‘historic artefact[s] [tarihi eser]’, were seized from a man with Syrian nationality when they were spotted at customs at the airport in Şanlıurfa as he transferred en route to Russia (Urfa Star, 2017).
  • Two ‘fraudsters [Dolandırıcılar]’ with Syrian nationality were found with ‘a large quantity of fake coins [çok sayıda sahte sikke]’ (Urfa Değişim, 2017).
  • In one of the cases that most clearly illustrate the increasingly significant politics of cultural property policing in general and the demographics of cultural property crime in particular, two paintings – one of a hunting scene and one of biblical iconography – were seized in an operation to capture a person with Syrian nationality. He had served as an ‘engineer lieutenant in the Free Syrian Army [Özgür Suriye ordusunda mühendis teğmen]’ and, ‘exploiting the ongoing war in Syria, wanted to sell the paintings, which had [allegedly] been looted from a museum, for 150,000 euros [Suriye’de yaşanan savaştan faydalanarak müzeden yağmalanan tabloları 150.000 Euro’ya satmak istediği]’ (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Mersin İl Jandarma Komutanlığı, 2017). Supposedly, museological analysis ‘established [that] both works were original [eserlerin her ikisinin de orijinal olduğu tespit edilmiştir]’ (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Mersin İl Jandarma Komutanlığı, 2017). However, the hunting scene is an Indian piece for the tourist market (according to Islamic art historian Stephennie Mulder, pers. comm., 30th May 2020) and the biblical iconography is at least questionable (though I’m trying to get better-quality images for a more certain judgement).
  • Seemingly two seemingly fake ‘Bible[s] that belonged to the Byzantine period [Bizans dönemine ait İncil]’, one of which supposedly had a value of 1,500,000 American dollars, were seized from a person with Syrian nationality who was believed to have brought them from Syria and to be trying to smuggle them out of Turkey (Demokrat Haber, 2017).
  • 238 pieces of cultural property were seized in a raid on a person with Syrian nationality, in a case that was suspected to involve at least two other people with Turkish nationality (Adana Ulus, 2017).

In 2018:

  • 238 seemingly fake antiquities were seized from six people with Syrian nationality, though they were accused of having ‘stolen priceless antiquities… during the ongoing civil war in Syria and tried to sell [them] in Adana [Suriye’de süren iç savaşta… paha biçilemez tarihi eserleri çalıp Adana’da satmaya çalışan]’ (İhlas Haber Ajansı, 2018a).
  • In another one of the cases that explicitly illustrate the increasingly significant politics of cultural property policing in general and the demographics of cultural property crime in particular, it was alleged that, following an investigation that spanned 2017 and 2018, 242 ‘antiquities, which had been looted by the terrorist organisations Daesh and PYD from museums and tombs on the soils of Mesopotamia like Iraq and Syria [Terör örgütleri DEAŞ ve PYD’nin, Irak ve Suriye gibi Mezopotamya toprakları üzerindeki müze ve mezarlardan yağmaladığı tarihi eserler]’, were seized in an operation against a group of nine traffickers, of whom two had Syrian nationality and seven had Turkish nationality (İhlas Haber Ajansı, 2018b).
  • Over the course of six raids, 393 pieces of cultural property were seized and 14 suspects were detained, two of whom had Syrian nationality (Türk Polis Teşkilatı, 2018).
  • Seemingly fake antiquities were seized from four people, one of whom had Syrian nationality, though they were asserted to be 118 ancient artefacts, ‘which had been stolen from a museum in Syria and brought to Turkey illegally [Suriye’de, müzeden çalınarak yasa dışı yollarla Türkiye’ye getirilen]’ (Doğan Haber Ajansı, 2018).
  • A seemingly fake bible was seized from two people with Syrian nationality, one person with Iraqi nationality and one person with Turkish nationality in a car (Bölükbaş, 2018).
  • A seemingly fake Torah was seized in a raid on a person with Syrian nationality, though he claimed that ‘he was curious about antiques and so he had bought the object that he thought was an antique in Syria for 4 thousand dollars and brought it with him when he came to Turkey [antikalara merakının olduğunu ve bu nedenle antika olduğunu düşündüğü objeyi Suriye’de 4 bin dolara satın aldığını, Türkiye’ye gelirken de yanında getirdiğ[i]]’ and the local museum directorate judged that it ‘had the characteristics of a historic artefact [Tarihi eser niteliğinde olduğu]’ (paraphrased by anti-smuggling police, cited by Sanal Basın, 2018).
  • 750 seemingly fake coins were seized from a driver with Turkish nationality and two passengers with Syrian nationality who ‘tried to sell the cultural property [in Adana] by sneaking it into the country illegally [ülkeye kaçak yollardan tarihi eser sokarak satmaya çalıştığı]’ (Alyaz Medya Ajans, 2018).

In 2019:

  • A fake Bible and a fake Torah were seized in a raid on ‘3 Syrians [3 Suriyeli]’ or ‘3 people with Syrian nationality [3 Suriye uyruklu kişi]’ or, as the same report later clarified, ‘3 suspects, one with Syrian nationality [biri Suriye uyruklu 3 şüpheli]’ in the Akçakale district of Şanlıurfa province, who had tried to sell the forgeries as antiquities (Etgü, 2019).
  • A range of seemingly fake antiquities – which encompassed a statue, three Torahs and nine coins – were seized from six people with Syrian nationality, who ‘were detained [in Osmaniye] on charges of “antiquities trafficking” [“tarihi eser kaçakçılığı” suçlamasıyla gözaltına alındı]’ (Doğan Haber Ajansı, 2019a).
  • 21 cultural objects, supposedly including ‘a handwritten Torah and paintings with the signature of Picasso [el yazmalı Tevrat ile Picasso imzalı resimler[i]]’, were seized from three people, one of whom had Syrian nationality, for having ‘tried to sell the historic artefacts, which they had brought from Syria illegally, in the Reyhanlı district of Hatay [province] [Suriye’den yasa dışı yollarla getirdikleri tarihi eserleri Hatay’ın Reyhanlı ilçesinde satmaya çalışan]’ (Yeni Akit, 2019).
  • A seemingly fake Torah was seized from three people with Syrian nationality (Aksu Haber, 2019).
  • Alongside a mass of narcotics (which included methamphetamine; cannabis; captagon, ecstasy and other pills; cocaine; and heroin), fake gold and counterfeit currency, ‘103 coins that were thought to be pieces of cultural property [103 adet tarihi eser olduğu düşünülen para]’ (but were probably more counterfeits) were seized in a raid on three people with Syrian nationality and one person with Turkish nationality in Esenyurt (Esenyurt Emniyet Müdürlüğü, 2019).
  • A range of supposedly Roman and/or Christian antiquities were seized in a raid on someone with Syrian nationality, with whom there was another suspect with Turkish nationality, though all of the cultural objects seemed to be fake antiquities (Bizim Haber Ajansı, 2019).
  • Three seemingly fake statuettes ‘that were judged to have the characteristics of historic artefacts [tarihi eser niteliği olduğu değerlendirilen]’ were seized in a raid on a person with Syrian nationality (Haber, 2019).
  • A supposed ‘portrait of the Prophet Jesus from the Byzantine period [Bizans dönemine ait Hazreti İsa portresi]’ and two other illustrations ‘that had been brought from Syria illegally [Suriye’den kaçak olarak getirilen]’ were seized in a raid on three people with Syrian nationality (Doğan Haber Ajansı, 2019b).

Figure 1: number of relevant results per year in searches for ‘Irak uyruklu’+’tarihi eser’ (‘with Iraq[i] nationality’+’historic artefact’) and ‘Suriye uyruklu’+’tarihi eser’ (‘with Syria[n] nationality’+’historic artefact’) with number of Syrians under temporary protection (according to Göç İdaresi Genel Müdürlüğü, 2020), 1993-2019.


Analysis

Despite the assertions in the texts, few cases could be confirmed to involve antiquities. Judging by the photographs that accompanied the texts, many cases seemed to involve fakes. Some cases were recognised as involving fakes.

Across the region, there has long been a cottage industry of forgery of antiquities. Due to an atmosphere of conspiracy theories about Jewish and Christian minorities and diasporas, there is a particular niche for Jewish and Christian relics. This appears to have intensified, as forgers have found opportunity in crisis, by crediting their sources as refugees.

There is a toxic feedback loop of criminality; policing, which has been intensified, securitised and politicised; academic inexpertise, where incorrect authentication is less problematic than incorrect rejection; and media reporting, which resembles churnalism (adaptation of pre-packaged reports) more often than journalism (investigation and critical assessment of reports).

So, the forgeries are credited as antiquities and the asking prices are credited as market values by cultural heritage professionals and law enforcement agents (though obviously the asking prices would have collapsed to almost nothing in any bargaining process); both are advertised by journalists; then, the forgers are found to be innocent of trafficking of antiquities and released to sell their works (HyeTert, 2019).

Theoretically, whether their crimes involve theft, forgery or fraud, all of these cases may involve professional criminals, rather than destitute lawbreakers.

Nonetheless, the difference between the number of suspects with Iraqi nationality and the number of suspects with Syrian nationality, plus the relationship between the number of cases that involve suspects with Syrian nationality and the number of Syrian refugees (or Syrians under temporary protection, according to Göç İdaresi Genel Müdürlüğü, 2020), suggest that there is some relationship between forced migration and cultural property crime (or at least cultural property policing).

Still, as the prevalence of forgeries and the extravagance of certain false provenances indicate, it is probably a much more complicated relationship than the numbers suggest.

Problems

Furthermore, although it has not yet been assessed empirically, since trafficking by the Islamic State has become prominent, there appears to have been an increase in allegations or insinuations of trafficking or forgery of antiquities by Kurdish organisations (e.g. Doğan Haber Ajansı, 2018a; Milliyet, 2017b; SuperHaber, 2018) and the Gülenist movement (e.g. Anadolu Ajansı, 2018a; İhlas Haber Ajansı, 2016c; Şen, 2016; Yeni Akit, 2018; Yeni Çağ, 2019) and even both (e.g. Anadolu Ajansı, 2018b).

While it may be a product of the small evidence base and/or natural variation in crime/policing, this may be reflected in the apparent spike in cases after the international mobilisation against trafficking by the Islamic State and the attempted coup against the Turkish government.

Since before then, there even appears to have been fabrication of evidence of fabrication of evidence, in order to dislodge rivals from positions of authority, in the factional struggles between power networks (e.g. Aksakal, 2010, where Gülenists apparently falsely accused secularists of falsely accusing Gülenists of antiquities trafficking). Clearly, then, there is also a relationship between politics and allegations of cultural property criminality.

Inevitably, all of these problems prompt skepticism of data on illicit trade and policing of cultural property crime. Nonetheless, neither indicators of extensive forgery, nor indicators of questionable evidence and questionable procedure, necessarily contradict evidence of intensive looting and trafficking. If nothing else, cases are rarely reported up to the point of conviction or acquittal, so eventual corrections and miscarriages of justice are rarely identifiable.

More concretely, as several alleged collecting histories demonstrate, fraudsters exploit conflict and forced migration as sources of false provenances for forgeries; they target consumers who do not know what they are buying, yet who hope to exploit vulnerable sellers of authentic antiquities. Moreover, there are indicators of connections between trafficking of forged art and financing of political violence (Hardy, 2017).

Conclusions

There are two fundamental points: first, there is evidence of some relationship between forced migration and cultural property crime (or policing); and second, profit-driven criminals use migration crises to provide false provenances for (albeit sometimes poorly) forged works of art.

This cannot be exploited to dismiss concerns about the flow of illicit goods onto the global market and the lack of due diligence in the art market, because the respectable market also uses migration crises to provide moral justifications for the acquisition of stolen works of art, or “rescue”-by-purchase, as it may provide an income to refugees.

Warning

As the Hrant Dink Foundation has observed during its documentation of hate speech in Turkey, some reports on antiquities trafficking by Syrians involve ‘exaggeration/ load[ed statements]/ [and/or] distortion [abartma/ yükleme/ çarpıtma]’ (Hrant Dink Vakfı, 2017). The current review has identified many more cases that raise concern.

Through these distorted reports, ‘Syrians are associated with crime through isolated incident[s] [münferit bir olay üzerinden Suriyeliler suç ile ilişkilendiriliyor]’, wherein news reports like one about ‘Syrian antiquities traffickers [who were] caught in the act [Suriyeli tarihi eser kaçakçılarına suçüstü]’ recklessly ‘create a negative perception of Syrians and labels them as a “threat factor” [Haber, Suriyelilere dair olumsuz bir algı oluşturuyor ve onları bir “tehdit unsuru” olarak etiketliyor]’ (Hrant Dink Vakfı, 2018).

Yet, to reiterate, through all of this, it must be remembered that only around one per cent of all suspected cultural property criminals do not have Turkish nationality (cf. Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Adli Sicil ve İstatistik Genel Müdürlüğü, 2019: 46 – table 2-13).

This is not a hypothetical concern. There is public evidence that, when reports specify that there are suspects with Syrian nationality, they provoke nationalist and anti-refugee sentiments (e.g. discussion under Emniyet Genel Müdürlüğü, 2018; this relates to the case that was identified through the report by Türk Polis Teşkilatı, 2018).

This toxic feedback loop of criminality, policing, incorrect authentication and churnalism must be taken seriously, because irresponsible discussion is actively dangerous to vulnerable populations.

Bibliography

Bibliography

Abdelaaty, L. 2019: “Refugees and guesthood in Turkey”. Journal of Refugee Studies, Advance Articles, 14th November. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1093/jrs/fez097
Adana Ulus. 2017: “Tarihi eser kaçakçılarına operasyon [operation against antiquities traffickers]”. Adana Ulus, 30th December. Available at: https://www.adanaulus.com/tarihi-eser-kacakcilarina-operasyon/
Aksakal, T. 2010: Erzincan iddianamesi [Erzincan indictment] [Investigation 2010/329, Basis 2010/70, Indictment 2010/66, 26th February 2010]. Erzurum: Cumhuriyet Başsavcılığı. Available at: https://tr.wikisource.org/wiki/Erzincan_iddianamesi
Aksu Haber. 2019: “Ceylan derisine altın yazmalı Tevrat ele geçirildi [a Torah with gold writing on gazelle skin was seized]”. Aksu Haber, 31st May. Available at: https://www.aksutvhaber.net/ceylan-derisine-altin-yazmali-tevrat-ele-gecirildi-video,18411.html
Alyaz Medya Ajans. 2018: “İngiltere Kraliçesi Victoria’nın altın paraları Adana’da bulundu [gold coins of Victoria, Queen of England, were found in Adana]”. Alyaz Medya Ajans, 25th November. Available at: https://www.hbrma.com/video/1841638/ingiltere-kralicesi-victorianin-altin-paralari-adanada-bulundu
Anadolu Ajansı. 2014: “Tarihi eser kaçakçılığı operasyonu [antiquities trafficking operation]”. Haberler, 5th September. Available at: https://www.haberler.com/tarihi-eser-kacakciligi-operasyonu-6451486-haberi/
Anadolu Ajansı. 2018a: “FETÖ’den rütbesi sökülen polis, tarihi eser kaçırırken yakalandı [police officer who had been removed from his post due to membership of the Gülenist Terrorist Organisation, caught while smuggling antiquities]”. Haber Türk, 3rd August. Available at: https://www.haberturk.com/son-dakika-feto-den-rutbesi-sokulen-polis-tarihi-eser-kacirirken-yakalandi-2088220
Anadolu Ajansı. 2018b: “Tarihi eser operasyonundan Kandil’in koordinatları çıktı! [Qandil’s coordinates came out from antiquities operation!]” Hürriyet, 16th October. Available at: http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/gundem/tarihi-eser-operasyonundan-kandilin-koordinatlari-cikti-40987982
Arslan, İ. 2009: “Kapıkule’de tarihi eser operasyonu [antiquities operation at Kapıkule]”. İhlas Haber Ajansı, 5th February. Available at: http://www.iha.com.tr/haber-kapikulede-tarihi-eser-operasyonu-54995/
Atam, H. 2017: “Ülkesinden kaçırdığı 4 bin yıllık tarihi eserle yakalandı! [Caught with 4-thousand-year-old antiquities that had been smuggled out of their country!]” Sözcü, 2nd February. Available at: https://www.sozcu.com.tr/2017/gundem/ulkesinden-kacirdigi-4-bin-yillik-tarihi-eserle-yakalandi-1656370/
Aydın Paragraf. 2019: “Mülteci operasyonundan, kaçak kazıcılar çıktı [illegal diggers emerged from refugee operation]”. Aydın Paragraf, 17th February. Available at: https://www.aydinparagraf.com/asayis/multeci-operasyonundan-kacak-kazicilar-cikti-h283.html
Başak. 2016: “Saddam’ın antik eşyaları yakalandı [Saddam’s antique goods were caught]”. Başak, 25th October. Available at: https://www.basakgazetesi.com/haber/saddamin-antik-esyalari-yakalandi-43796.html
Bizim Haber Ajansı. 2019: “Şanlıurfa’da tarihi eser operasyonu yapıldı [an antiquities operation was undertaken in Şanlıurfa]”. İpekyol, 9th December. Available at: https://www.gazeteipekyol.com/gundem/sanliurfa_da_tarihi_eser_operasyonu_yapildi-h50799.html
Bölükbaş, H. 2018: “Aksaray’da tarihi İncil ele geçirildi [historic Bible seized in Aksaray]”. Sözcü, 8th April. Available at: https://www.sozcu.com.tr/2018/gundem/aksarayda-tarihi-incil-ele-gecirildi-2337762/
Cihan Haber Ajansı. 2013a: “Suriye’den kaçırdığı tarihi eserleri satmak istedi [they wanted to sell antiquities that they had smuggled from Syria]”. Etki Haber, 19th March. Available at: http://www.etkihaber.com/suriyeden-kacirdigi-tarihi-eserleri-satmak-istedi-201208h.htm
Cihan Haber Ajansı. 2013b: “Suriye’den getirilen tarihi eserler ele geçirildi [antiquities that were brought from Syria were seized]”. Haber 7, 9th September. Available at: https://www.haber7.com/guncel/haber/1071756-suriyeden-getirilen-tarihi-eserler-ele-gecirildi
Cihan Haber Ajansı. 2013c: “Suriyeli bayanın çantasından tarihi eser çıktı [cultural property emerged from Syrian woman’s bag]”. Merhaba Haber, 25th December. Available at: https://www.merhabahaber.com/suriyeli-bayanin-cantasindan-tarihi-eser-cikti-183894h.htm
Demokrat Haber. 2017: “Ankara’da tarihi İncil ele geçirildi [a historic Bible was seized in Ankara]”. Demokrat Haber, 1st October. Available at: https://www.demokrathaber.org/tarih/ankarada-tarihi-incil-ele-gecirildi-h90477.html
Diken. 2017: “Suriye’den çalınan 1,5 milyon liralık kitap Bursa’da ele geçirildi [1.5-million-lira book, which was stolen from Syria, was seized in Bursa]”. Diken, 8th March. Available at: http://www.diken.com.tr/suriyeden-calinan-15-milyon-liralik-kitap-bursada-ele-gecirildi/
Doğan Haber Ajansı. 2015: “Hatay’da 5 bin 108 parça tarihi eser ele geçirildi [5,108 pieces of cultural property were seized in Hatay]”. Yeni Asya, 30th December. Available at: https://www.yeniasya.com.tr/yurt-haber/hatay-da-5-bin-108-parca-tarihi-eser-ele-gecirildi_37april6988
Doğan Haber Ajansı. 2016: “İstanbul’da tarihi eser operasyonu: 4 şüpheli adliyede [Antiquities operation in Istanbul: 4 suspects in court]”. Haber Türk, 17th April. Available at: https://www.haberturk.com/gundem/haber/1226216-istanbulda-tarihi-eser-operasyonu-4-supheli-adliyede
Doğan Haber Ajansı. 2018a: “Tarihi eser kaçakçılığında DEAŞ ve PYD izi! [Trace of Daesh and PYD in antiquities trafficking!]” A Haber, 26th January. Available at: https://www.ahaber.com.tr/gundem/2018/01/26/tarihi-eser-kacakciliginda-deas-ve-pyd-izi
Doğan Haber Ajansı. 2018b: “Suriye’de müzeden çalınan eserler, Gaziantep’te ele geçirildi [antiquities that were stolen from museum in Syria, were seized in Gaziantep]”. Hürriyet, 22nd March. Available at: https://www.hurriyet.com.tr/suriyede-muzeden-calinan-eserler-gaziantepte-40781297
Doğan Haber Ajansı. 2019a: “Osmaniye’de İbranice el yazmalı kitap ele geçirildi [handwritten Hebrew-language book seized in Osmaniye]”. CNN Türk, 26th February. Available at: https://www.cnnturk.com/turkiye/osmaniyede-ibranice-el-yazmali-kitap-ele-gecirildi
Doğan Haber Ajansı. 2019b: “Şanlıurfa’da tarihi eser kaçakçılığına gözaltı [detained for antiquities trafficking in Şanlıurfa]”. Haber 3, 25th December. Available at: https://www.haber3.com/guncel/sanliurfada-tarihi-eser-kacakciligina-gozalti-haberi-5067859
Emniyet Genel Müdürlüğü. 2018: “Tarihi eser kaçakçıları kıskıvrak yakalandı. İstanbul’da tarihi eser kaçakçılarına yönelik yapılan 6 ayrı operasyonda; -Sümer, Akad, Asur, Bizans, Selçuklu ve Osmanlı Dönemlerine ait toplam 393 adet tarihi eser ele geçirildi. -2’si Suriye uyruklu 14 şüpheli şahıs yakalandı. [Antiquities traffickers inescapably caught. In 6 separate operations that were undertaken against antiquities traffickers in Istanbul; a total of 393 pieces of cultural property that belonged to the Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman Periods were seized. 14 suspects were captured, 2 of whom had Syrian nationality.]” Facebook, 27th January. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/EmniyetGM/posts/884754851649508/
Ergül, M. N.d.: “Haber arşivi [news archive]”. The Turkish Picassos, no date. Available at: https://www.theturkishpicassos.com/arsiv-archive
Ertuğrul, E. 2015: “İstanbul’da Suriye’den getirilen tarihi eserler bulundu [antiquities were found in Istanbul that had been brought from Syria]”. İhlas Haber Ajansı, 26th December. Available at: https://arkeofili.com/istanbulda-suriyeden-getirilen-tarihi-eserler-bulundu/
Esenyurt İlçe Emniyet Müdürlüğü. 2019: “Basın duyurusu [press release]”. İstanbul Emniyet Müdürlüğü, 19th November. Available at: http://www.istanbul.pol.tr/esenyurt-ilce-emniyet-mudurlugu-basin-duyurusu19112019
Etgü, M. 2019: “Taklit el yazmalarını tarihi eser diye satmaya çalışan 3 Suriyeli yakalandı [3 Syrians, who tried to sell counterfeit manuscripts as historic artefacts, were caught]”. Anadolu Ajansı, 15th February. Available at: https://www.arkeolojikhaber.com/haber-taklit-el-yazmalarini-tarihi-eser-diye-satmaya-calisan-3-suriyeli-yakalandi-19725/
Göç İdaresi Genel Müdürlüğü. 2020: “Yıllara göre geçici koruma kapsamındaki Suriyeliler [Syrians under temporary protection by year]”. Göç İdaresi Genel Müdürlüğü, 11th June. Available at: https://www.goc.gov.tr/gecici-koruma5638
Haber. 2019: “Mardin’de tarihi eser operasyonu [antiquities operation in Mardin]”. Haber, 11th December. Available at: https://www.habergazetesi.com.tr/haber/5655963/mardinde-tarihi-eser-operasyonu
Hardy, S A. 2017: “The market for conflict antiquities and fake conflict antiquities”. Paper presented at the Workshop on Radiocarbon Dating and Protection of Cultural Heritage, Zurich, Switzerland, 16th-17th November. Available at: https://ethz.ch/content/dam/ethz/special-interest/phys/particle-physics/ion-beam-physics-dam/documents/01%20Hardy%202017%20fake%20conflict%20antiquities%20market.pdf
Hrant Dink Vakfı. 2017: “Eylül-Aralık 2017 döneminde tespit edilen yerel gazete içerikleri [contents of local newspapers that were identified in September-December 2017]”. Hrant Dink Vakfı, 31st December. Available at: https://hrantdink.org/attachments/article/1215/Eyl%C3%BCl-Aralik-17-Yerel-k%C3%BCnye.pdf
Hrant Dink Vakfı. 2018: “Nefret söylemi haftalık Z raporu, 1-7 Ocak 2018 [hate speech weekly Z report, 1st-7th January 2018]”. Hrant Dink Vakfı, 7th January. Available at: https://hrantdink.org/tr/asulis/faaliyetler/projeler/medyada-nefret-soylemi/1172-nefret-soylemi-haftalik-z-raporu-1-7-ocak-2018
HyeTert. 2019: “Türkiye’de sıradan bir haber başlığı: Tarihi Tevrat operasyonla ele geçirildi! [An ordinary news headline in Turkey: A historic Torah was seized in an operation!]” HyeTert, 20th February. Available at: https://hyetert.org/2019/02/20/turkiyede-siradan-bir-haber-basligi-tarihi-tevrat-operasyonla-ele-gecirildi/
İhlas Haber Ajansı. 2016a: “Suriye uyruklu tarihi eser kaçakçısı yakalandı [antiquities trafficker with Syrian nationality caught]”. Haberler, 19th February. Available at: https://www.haberler.com/suriye-uyruklu-tarihi-eser-kacakcisi-yakalandi-8174924-haberi/
İhlas Haber Ajansı. 2016b: “Kırıkhan’da tarihi eser ele geçirildi [antiquities were seized in Kırıkhan]”. İhlas Haber Ajansı, 26th July. Available at: http://www.iha.com.tr/haber-kirikhanda-tarihi-eser-ele-gecirildi-575888/
İhlas Haber Ajansı. 2016c: “20 ton altın iddiasının arkasından FETÖ çıktı [Gülen movement behind claim of 20 tons of gold]”. Sabah, 29th December. Available at: https://www.sabah.com.tr/yasam/2016/12/29/20-ton-altin-iddiasinin-arkasindan-feto-cikti
İhlas Haber Ajansı. 2018a: “Suriyelilerin evinde 238 parça tarihi eser ele geçirildi [238 pieces of cultural property were seized in Syrians’ house]”. En Son Haber, 1st January. Available at: https://www.ensonhaber.com/ic-haber/suriyelilerin-evinde-238-parca-tarihi-eser-ele-gecirildi
İhlas Haber Ajansı. 2018b: “Teröristlerin yağmaladığı tarihi eserler İstanbul’da ele geçirildi [antiquities that had been looted by terrorists were seized in Istanbul]”. İstanbul, 26th January. Available at: https://gazeteistanbul.com/teroristlerin-yagmaladigi-tarihi-eserler-istanbulda-ele-gecirildi/
Karamanca. 2017: “Aksaray’da tarihi incil ele geçirildi [historic bible seized in Aksaray]”. Karamanca, 20th March. Available at: https://www.karamanca.net/aksarayda-tarihi-incil-ele-gecirildi/573108/
Kilis Postası. 2017: “Kilis’te tarihi eser kaçakçılığı [antiquities trafficking in Kilis]”. Kilis Postası, 7th April. Available at: http://www.kilispostasi.com/kilis-te-tarihi-eser-kacakciligi/1210793/
Koçyiğit, İ. 2015: “Gaziantep’te 66 adet tarihi eser ele geçirildi [66 pieces of cultural property were seized in Gaziantep]”. Doğru Haber, 25th June. Available at: https://dogruhaber.com.tr/haber/176526-gaziantepte-66-adet-tarihi-eser-ele-gecirildi/
Medya Urfa. 2017: “Şanlıurfa’da tarihi eser operasyonu [antiquities operation in Şanlıurfa]”. Medya Urfa, 4th January. Available at: http://www.medyaurfa.com/gundem/sanliurfa-da-tarihi-eser-operasyonu-h53322.html
Milliyet. 2013: “Suriyeli sığınmacılar mı getirdi? [Did Syrian refugees bring it?]” Milliyet, 13th January. Available at: https://www.milliyet.com.tr/gundem/suriyeli-siginmacilar-mi-getirdi-1654887
Milliyet. 2017a: “Suriyeli mülteciler sahte altın sikkeleri satamadan yakalandı [Syrian refugees caught before they could sell fake gold coins]”. Milliyet, 18th October. Available at: https://www.milliyet.com.tr/yerel-haberler/samsun/suriyeli-multeciler-sahte-altin-sikkeleri-satamadan-yakalandi-12345921
Milliyet. 2017b: “DEAŞ ve PKK’ya tarihi darbe!” Vatan, 21st November. Available at: http://www.gazetevatan.com/deas-ve-pkk-ya-tarihi-darbe–1120414-gundem/
NTV-MSNBC. 2000: “Picasso Ankara’da sergilenecek [Picasso will be exhibited in Ankara]”. NTV-MSNBC, 8th June. Available at: http://arsiv.ntv.com.tr/news/9774.asp
Olay. 2015: “Şanlıurfa’da tarihi eser kaçaklığına 1 gözaltı [1 detained for antiquities trafficking in Şanlıurfa]”. Olay, 11th April. Available at: https://www.sanliurfaolay.com/haber/sanliurfada-tarihi-eser-kacakligina-1-gozalti/2706
Öncü Şehir. 2017: “Ankara emniyetinden tarihi eser operasyonu [antiquities operation by Ankara security]”. Öncü Şehir, 1st April. Available at: https://www.oncusehir.com/ankara-emniyetinden-tarihi-eser-operasyonu/17545/
Samsun. 2014: “Jandarmadan tarihi eser kaçakçılarına suçüstü [antiquities traffickers were caught in the act by the Gendarmerie]”. Samsun, 12th April. Available at: https://www.samsungazetesi.com/guncel/jandarmadan-tarihi-eser-kacakcilarina-sucustu-h243548.html
Sanal Basın. 2018: “Tarihi eser operasyonunda ele geçirildi! Yakut ve zümrütlerle bezeli. [Cultural property was seized in operation! Covered with rubies and emeralds.]” Sanal Basın, 14th September. Available at: http://www.sanalbasin.com/tarihi-eser-operasyonunda-ele-gecirildi-yakut-ve-zumrutlerle-bezeli-26906538/
Sat 7 Türk Haber. 2015: “Urfa’da tarihi İncil bulundu [a historic Bible was found in Urfa]”. Sat 7 Türk Haber, 2nd September. Available at: https://haber.sat7turk.com/urfada-tarihi-incil-bulundu/
Şen, A E. 2016: “Tarsus’ta, Özel Harekat gözetiminde esrarengiz kazı [a mysterious excavation under the supervision of Special Operations Police]”. Hürriyet, 8th December. Available at: http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/tarsusta-ozel-harekat-gozetiminde-esrarengiz-40300547
Sözcü. 2016a: “Sınırda yakalanan Suriyelilerin üzerinden tarihi eser çıktı [antiquities were found on Syrians who were caught at the border]”. Sözcü, 12th April. Available at: https://www.sozcu.com.tr/2016/gundem/sinirda-yakalanan-suriyelilerin-uzerinden-tarihi-eser-cikti-1181138/
Sözcü. 2016b: “Poşetten tarihi eser çıktı [cultural property came out of pocket]”. Sözcü, 19th May. Available at: https://www.sozcu.com.tr/hayatim/kultur-sanat-haberleri/posetten-tarihi-eser-cikti/
Şulul, Ö. 2015: “Suriye’den getirilen tarihi eserler Şanlıurfa ele geçti [antiquities, which were brought from Syria, changed hands in Şanlıurfa]”. Haber Antalya, 29th April. Available at: https://www.haberantalya.com/suriye-den-getirilen-tarihi-eserler-sanliurfa-da-ele-gecti/872/
SuperHaber. 2018: “Terörist tarihi eser kaçakçısı çıktı! [Terrorist antiquities trafficker emerged!]” SuperHaber, 4th April. Available at: https://www.superhaber.tv/terorist-tarihi-eser-kacakcisi-cikti-120967-haber
Türk Polis Teşkilatı. 2018: “Tarihi eser kaçakçıları kıskıvrak yakalandı. İstanbul’da tarihi eser kaçakçılarına yönelik yapılan 6 ayrı operasyonda; -Sümer, Akad, Asur, Bizans, Selçuklu ve Osmanlı Dönemlerine ait toplam 393 adet tarihi eser ele geçirildi. -2’si Suriye uyruklu 14 şüpheli şahıs yakalandı. [Antiquities traffickers inescapably caught. In 6 separate operations that were undertaken against antiquities traffickers in Istanbul; a total of 393 pieces of cultural property that belonged to the Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman Periods were seized. 14 suspects were captured, 2 of whom had Syrian nationality.]” Twitter, 27th January. Available at: https://twitter.com/EmniyetGM/status/957179268848644096
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Adli Sicil ve İstatistik Genel Müdürlüğü. 2019: Adli istatistikler 2018 [forensic statistics 2018]. Ankara: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Adli Sicil ve İstatistik Genel Müdürlüğü. Available at: http://www.adlisicil.adalet.gov.tr/Resimler/SayfaDokuman/2082019153842istatistik2018.pdf
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Mersin İl Jandarma Komutanlığı. 2017: “Tarihi Meryem Ana tablosu yakalandı [a historic painting of Mother Mary was caught]”. Erdemli Ajans, 14th July. Available at: https://www.erdemliajans.com.tr/haber/1043/tarihi-meryem-ana-tablosu-yakalandi.html
Urfa Değişim. 2017: “Şanlıurfa’da tarihi eser kaçakçılarına operasyon [operation against antiquities traffickers in Şanlıurfa]”. Urfa Değişim, 13th June. Available at: https://www.urfadegisim.com/sanliurfa-da-tarihi-eser-kacakcilarina-operasyon/588/
Urfa Star. 2017: “Şanlıurfa’da ele geçirildi [seized in Şanlıurfa]”. Urfa Star, 22nd May. Available at: http://www.urfastar.com/asayis/sanliurfa-da-ele-gecirildi-h28079.html
Urfa’da Bugün. 2015: “Şanlıurfa’da tarihi eser operasyonu: 3 gözaltı [Antiquities operation in Şanlıurfa: 3 detained]”. Urfa’da Bugün, 15th October. Available at: https://www.urfadabugun.com/haber/92648/sanliurfada-tarihi-eser-operasyonu-3-gozalti.html
Vural, Z. 2015: “Esenyurt’ta tarihi eser operasyonu [antiquities operation in Esenyurt]”. Haberdar, 9th February. Available at: http://www.haberdar.com.tr/asayis/esenyurtta-tarihi-eser-operasyonu-h33396.html
Yeni Akit. 2018: “Manisa’da tarihi eser kaçakçılığı operasyonu! Dikkat çeken FETÖ ayrıntısı. [Antiquities trafficking operation in Manisa! Gülenist Terrorist Organisation detail draws attention.]” Yeni Akit, 6th November. Available at: https://www.yeniakit.com.tr/haber/manisada-tarihi-eser-kacakciligi-operasyonu-dikkat-ceken-feto-ayrintisi-541118.html
Yeni Akit. 2019: “Hatay’da tarihi eser operasyonu [antiquities operation in Hatay]”. Yeni Akit, 8th March. Available at: https://www.yeniakit.com.tr/haber/hatayda-tarihi-eser-operasyonu-648448.html
Yeni Çağ. 2019: “Denizli’de kaçak tarihi eser kazısına 17 gözaltı [17 detained for illegal antiquities excavation in Denizli]”. Yeni Çağ, 15th March. Available at: https://www.yenicaggazetesi.com.tr/denizlide-kacak-tarihi-eser-kazisina-17-gozalti-226931h.htm
Yeni Meram. 2015: “Konya’da tarihi eser kaçakçılığı [antiquities trafficking in Konya]”. Yeni Meram, 28th April. Available at: http://www.yenimeram.com.tr/konyada-tarihi-eser-kacakciligi-108619.htm
Yetmez, H. 2008. “Saddam’ın hazinesi Hatay’da çıktı [Saddam’s treasure emerged in Hatay]”. Haber 7, 15th February. Available at: https://www.haber7.com/guncel/haber/300283-saddamin-hazinesi-hatayda-cikti
Yıldırım, M. 2016: “Sahte Tevrat’ı satmaya çalışırken yakalandılar [they were caught while trying to sell a fake Torah]”. Anadolu Ajansı, 28th June. Available at: https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/turkiye/sahte-tevrati-satmaya-calisirken-yakalandilar/598983

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: